What kinds of birds of prey can you find in Alaska?
This question is common, both for birders and non-birders alike. Raptors are popular animals that tend to catch people’s interest more than most other species. Luckily, in Alaska, there are many species in all sorts of different habitats.
Today, you will learn about 15 types of raptors that live in Alaska!
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Here is how the below list is organized. Click the link to jump straight to that section!
#1. Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed Hawks are one of the most prevalent birds of prey in Alaska.
These large raptors are often seen on long drives in the countryside, soaring in the sky, or perched on a fence post. The color of a Red-tailed Hawk’s plumage can be anything from nearly white to virtually black, so coloration is not a reliable indicator. The best way to identify them is by looking for their characteristic red tail. 🙂
Red-tailed Hawk Range Map
These hawks are highly adaptable, and there is no real description of their preferred habitats because they seem to be comfortable everywhere. I have seen Red-tailed Hawks in numerous places, from the deep backcountry in Yellowstone National Park to urban cities to my own suburban backyard! Pick a habitat, such as pastures, parks, deserts, roadsides, rainforests, woodlands, fields, or scrublands, and you’ll find them thriving.
Red-tailed Hawks have impressive calls that are easily identified.
In fact, people are so enamored with their screams, it’s common for directors to use the sounds of a Red-tailed Hawk to replace Bald Eagles that appear in movies. In case you have never heard one, Bald Eagles don’t make sounds that live up to their appearance (putting it nicely!)
Length: 18-26 inches / 45-65 cm
Weight: 1.5-3.5 lbs. / 700-1600 gm
Wingspan: 43-55 inches/ 110-140 cm
Scientific Name: Buteo jamaicensis
#2. Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawks are one of the smallest birds of prey in Alaska, and they are incredibly athletic and acrobatic. It’s common to see these raptors zipping through the woods or by your bird feeders in a blur of motion!
To identify these birds, look for bars of orange on their upper chest that fades towards the belly and blue-gray back and wings. When they are flying, their wings are relatively short and rounded, but with a long tail. Females are considerably bigger than males.
Sharp-shinned Hawk Range Map
These raptors are common in forested areas in Alaska. They are most often seen around bird feeders, hunting and preying on the songbirds that come to visit. These raptors are ambush predators, sitting patiently and then dashing out from cover at high speed to chase birds, which make up 90% of their diet.
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In my backyard, I see them catching Mourning Doves the most.
Press PLAY below to hear a Sharp-shinned Hawk!
One way to verify you have seen a Sharp-shinned Hawk is to listen for their sounds. Individuals give a high-pitched shrill “kik-kik-kik” which is typically repeated several times.
Length: 9-13.5 inches / 23-37 cm
Weight: 3-8 oz / 82-220 gm
Wingspan: 16.5-26.5 inches / 42-68 cm
Scientific Name: Accipiter striatus
#3. Rough Legged Hawk
Rough-legged Hawks, which are also called Rough-legged Buzzards and Rough-legged Falcons, spend their summers living and breeding on the Arctic tundra. You can only see these large raptors in Alaska during winter when they migrate south. Unlike most hawks, this species has feathers all the way down to their feet, which helps keep them warm in the cold environments they chose to live.
Rough-legged Hawk Range Map
Look for these chunky, large raptors in open areas. They have a unique hunting style where they hover while facing the wind looking for food. In fact, they are one of the few birds of prey that truly hovers in place.
These raptors are typically silent, except they make a mewing sound near the nest. (Listen below!)
Length: 18.5-23.5 inches / 46-59 cm
Weight: 25-49 oz / 715-1400 gm
Wingspan: 52-54 inches / 132-138 cm
Scientific Name: Buteo lagopus
The first thing you need to know about Ospreys is they are NOT hawks! They are not eagles either and, scientifically speaking, have been given their own Family (Pandionidae) and Genus (Pandion), separate from all other birds of prey.
Even though Ospreys are not hawks, they certainly look similar to one. These raptors have also been given nicknames, such as Sea Hawk, River Hawk, and Fish Hawk, which hint at the association between an Osprey and hawk.
Osprey Range Map
When you think of an Osprey, you should think of fish, because that is what these birds eat 99% of the time. Even an Osprey’s talons are perfectly adapted for catching fish. If you take a close look, you will see they are extremely curved and even intersect when fully closed, which makes them perfectly designed for holding onto slippery fish!
Because of their specialized diet, you will almost always find Ospreys living, breeding, and raising their young around water in Alaska. Mating for life, it’s common for them to use human-made nesting platforms. If you live near a large body of water, I recommend installing one to see if you can attract a nesting pair!
Listen for Ospreys next time you are around a large body of water. Their alarm call is a series of short high-pitched whistles that descend in pitch. The noise has been compared to a teapot taken off a stove.
Length: 20-25.5 inches / 50-65 cm
Weight: 3-4.4 lb. / 1.4-2 kg
Wingspan: 59-71 inches / 150-180 cm
Scientific Name: Pandion haliaetus
#5. Great Horned Owl
The Great Horned Owl is often colored with an orangey face with black and white contrasting lines that resemble a tiger. Since the objective of most predators is not to be seen, it has horizontal bars on its underside to look like tree branches when you’re looking up, and mottles of “tree colors” on top to look “leafy” if you’re looking from above.
These raptors are quite large and look fierce! To identify, look for their long tufts of feathers that resemble ears on their head. Also, check out their intimidating eyes. I know I would not want to have a staring contest with one!
Great Horned Owl Range Map
Great Horned Owls are common birds of prey in Alaska.
Both sexes hoot, but males are lower-pitched than females. Males give territorial calls that can be heard a few miles away at night. I don’t think there is another owl species that does hooting better than a Great Horned Owl!
A Great Horned Owls’ sense of smell is so weak that they even attack and eat skunks. It’s not uncommon for them, along with their nests and pellets, to smell of skunk.
#6. Barred Owl
Barred Owls (aka the Hoot Owl), are an unthreatened, nocturnal species found in southern Alaska. The name “barred” derives from the horizontal stripes of alternating light brown and dark brown on the wings, back, and tail.
Barred Owl Range Map
Barred Owls are the owl species that I have observed the most in the wild. They are incredibly curious and inquisitive, and many times will watch as you walk past them. Even if they get nervous as you approach, typically they just fly off a bit to another tree to continue observing.
Barred Owls rely on mice and other small rodents, but eat just about anything made of meat! They will readily grab rats, rabbits, bats, squirrels, moles, minks, weasels, opossums, a variety of birds, frogs, snakes, fish, turtles, and will even hunt around your nightly campfire to catch some sweet, juicy insects.
And speaking of classical noises, their hoots are the classic sounds featured in movies and scary Halloween tales. It’s easy to recognize their call as it sounds like they are asking, “Who cooks for you?” Barred Owls will sound off during daylight hours too, and they mate for life.
#7. Western Screech-Owl
Once upon a time, Western Screech-owls were thought to be the same bird as the Eastern Screech-owl, but research has determined that they are two distinct species. The Western variety ranges in weight from 3.5–11 oz. (100–300 grams), with a body length of 7.5–10 inches (19–28 cm), and a wingspan of 22–24 inches (55–62 cm).
Western Screech-owl Range Map
Western Screech-owls can be found in forests, but you’ll also find them in suburban parkland, deserts, farm fields, and any basic shrubland. They are a relatively common bird of prey in Alaska.
The primary foods of a Western Screech-owl include rats, mice, and birds. But they are opportunistic hunters and will also eat fish, amphibians, and invertebrates, such as crayfish, insects, earthworms, and slugs. Interestingly, they have been known to occasionally pluck a trout out of the water at night, or take on something as large as a duck or rabbit.
Western Screech-owl calls are not “screechy,” as the name suggests. The most common sound is a rather quiet, pleasant trill (“hoo-hoo-hoo” or “cr-r-oo-oo-oo”), which speeds up at the end but maintains a constant pitch.
#8. Snowy Owl
Snowy Owls get my vote for the most beautiful raptor in Alaska! Their stunning white plumage stops almost everyone in their tracks, both birders and non-birders alike!
Now, this is one big bird at 20.7–25.2 inches (52.5–64 cm) tall, a wingspan of 48–60 inches (1.2–1.5 meters), and with weights in the 3.2–4 lb. (1,465–1,800 gram) range. Snowy Owls are mostly white, but they do have horizontal dark lines all over their bodies except the face and breast. Interestingly, individuals seem to get whiter with age.
Snowy Owl Range Map
Snowy Owls migrate with the changing seasons. During summer, they mate and breed in the arctic tundra. But when winter arrives, these birds come south.
You never know how far south Snowy Owls will travel. Most winters, Snowy Owls only appear as far down as the northern USA. But some years, there is an “irruption” of Snowy Owls, and many more birds than normal migrate south.
When defending their territory or searching for a mate, males make a loud “hoo, hoo.” This hoot is so loud that it can be heard up to 7 miles away on the tundra! Females rarely hoot, but other noises (for both sexes) include cackles, shrieks, hissing, and bill snapping.
#9. Great Gray Owl
The Great Gray Owl is also known by many alternate names. How about Bearded Owl, Cinereous Owl, Lapland Owl, Phantom of the North, Sooty Owl, Spectral Owl, or Spruce Owl?
Whatever you call it, this species is (lengthwise) one of the largest birds of prey in Alaska at 24–33 inches (61–84 cm) tall, with a wingspan of 5 feet (1.5 meters), and weighing in somewhere between 1½–4 lb (580–1,900 grams). As you’ve probably guessed, this owl is predominantly grey colored with alternating light and dark stripes.
Great Gray Owl Range Map
Grey Gray Owls NEVER build nests. They just use ones that were made by other big birds. Talk about being efficient! However, once they claim a used nest, these owls will defend it courageously, even against black bears!
Their call is reasonably distinctive, bold, and deep, which sounds like “whooooo, woo, woo, woo.” They also have a soft double hoot that is used when providing food to their babies or defending a territory.
#10. Northern Saw-whet Owl
This species is one of the smallest raptors in Alaska, at just 6.5–9 inches (17–23 cm) tall, and cute as a button. They’re quite light at only 1.9–5.3 oz. (54–151 grams), and have a wingspan of just 16.5–22.2 inches (42–56.3 cm). Northern Saw-whet Owls are typically colored in pale browns and tans.
Their favorite foods are deer mice, voles, and shrews. But these owls will supplement their diet with small birds, insects, and invertebrates when necessary.
Northern Saw-whet Owl Range Map
Northern Saw-whet Owls seem to prefer dense coniferous or mixed hardwood forests, with a river nearby. Because of their need for mature trees, their numbers have been declining.
These owls get their name from the sound they make when alarmed, which resembles the whetting (sharpening) of a saw. But their most common call happens during the breeding season. It sounds like a “too-too-too,” emitted at about two notes per second.
#11. Short-eared Owl
This mid-sized tawny-brown mottled owl is 13–17 inches (34–43 cm) tall, with a wingspan of 33.5-40.5 inches (85–103 cm), and weighs between 7.3–16.8 oz (206–475 grams). Its false ears are not always visible as Short-eared Owls typically only erect them when they want to look intimidating.
Short-eared Owl Range Map
Your best chance to spot these raptors in Alaska is at dusk or dawn in open fields, grasslands, meadows, or airports.
These owls build their nests on the ground in open areas such as meadows, tundra, savanna, or prairies. If obliged to flee its nest to draw off a predator, the parent will poop on the eggs so the smell will keep predators away. Similar to a Kildeer, Short-eared Owls also lure predators away from their nest by hopping away and pretending to be crippled.
Short-eared Owls are not particularly vocal. But when they do make noises, these birds have a call, oddly enough, that sounds an awful lot like a cat looking for a mate.
Falcons & Eagles
#12. Peregrine Falcon
Peregrine Falcons are birds of prey that can be found everywhere in Alaska and are actually located on every continent except Antarctica. Because of their fondness of nesting on the sides of tall buildings, these raptors are common in cities where they can become quite the local celebrities!
There is little color differentiation amongst individual birds and sexes. Both males and females have a slate grey/bluish-black back with faint barring. Their chest is white to tan with thin dark lines. Immature birds are often much browner than adults. Like almost all species of falcons, females are larger than males.
Peregrine Falcon Range Map
Peregrine Falcons have the honor of being the FASTEST animal on the planet!
Don’t be fooled by stories that the cheetah is the fastest creature. Oh sure, they can crank it up to 75 mph (120 kph), and that is amazing for being on the ground. But when a Peregrine Falcon dives, it can reach speeds of up to 200 mph (320 kph)! And it starts its journey from as high as 3,000 feet, so it cruises at these high speeds for a considerable distance.
Peregrine Falcons primarily eat other birds. In fact, at least 450 different types of birds have been documented as their prey. They are not picky and take almost anything they can catch, including ducks, gulls, pigeons, and songbirds.
You won’t hear them make much noise, except for around its nesting site as an alarm call. It sounds like “kack-kack-kack-kack.” Press the PLAY button below to hear an example!
Length: 13-23 inches / 34-58 cm
Weight: 12-53 oz. / 330-1500 gm
Wingspan: 29-47 inches / 74-120 cm
#13. American Kestrel
The American Kestrel is the smallest raptor in Alaska and is roughly the size of an American Robin. Don’t let the tiny stature fool you, though, because these birds of prey are accomplished hunters.
In fact, you may have heard of a kestrel’s alternate name, which is the Sparrow Hawk. This name was given because they will take sparrows and other birds of that size right out of the air!
American Kestrel Range Map
American Kestrels are one of the most widespread and numerous birds of prey on the continent, and common to see in Alaska.
One of their favorite strategies to catch prey is to hover in the breeze from a relatively low height, looking for insects, invertebrates, small rodents, and birds. But life can be tough when you’re the smallest falcon since they are sometimes eaten as prey by larger raptors, as well as rat snakes and corn snakes!
Kestrels have a distinct call that sounds much like it’s saying “klee-klee-klee” or “killy, killy, killy,” which is usually repeated rapidly. Press the PLAY button below to hear an example!
Length: 9-12 inches / 22-31 cm
Weight: 2.8-5.8 oz. / 80-165 gm
Wingspan: 20-24 inches / 51-61 cm
#14. Bald Eagle
The Bald Eagle is probably the most recognizable raptor in Alaska!
But did you know that the “Bald” portion of their name has nothing to do with not having feathers on their head? As you can clearly see, these eagles have white feathers covering their entire face with no bald spots anywhere. Their name actually stems from an Old English word “piebald,” which means “white patch” and refers to their bright white heads.
While almost everyone knows what a full-grown Bald Eagle looks like, trying to correctly identify juvenile birds is tricky. These eagles don’t get their characteristic white head and dark brown body until they are FIVE YEARS OLD. Until then, these birds have all sorts of different plumages and streaky browns and whites on their bodies. Even their beak changes color! It takes A LOT of practice and experience to identify young Bald Eagles properly!
Bald Eagle Range Map
They are most commonly seen around bodies of water. The reason for this is that they mostly eat fish! Look for them around marshes, lakes, coasts, and rivers. The BEST areas are forests near large bodies of water that provide good fishing AND tall trees for nesting sites.
The Bald Eagle probably doesn’t sound like what you think. If you imagine an intimidating eagle call, then you would be wrong. I think they sound more like a gull, with trills and little whistles. In fact, movie directors are so unimpressed with the sounds a Bald Eagle makes, it’s common for them to use the call of a Red-tailed Hawk instead for dramatic effect!
Press PLAY above to hear a Bald Eagle!
Length: 28-40 inches / 70-102 cm
Weight: 6.5-15 lbs / 3-7 kg
Wingspan: 71-91 inches / 1.8-2.3 meters
#15. Golden Eagle
Golden Eagles are incredibly fast and agile, which makes them expert hunters. Where Bald Eagles mostly eat fish, these eagles almost always eat mammals. Their favorite prey includes rabbits, hares, ground squirrels, marmots, and prairie dogs. But these raptors have been known to hunt and kill animals as large as small deer, seals, mountain goats, coyotes, and badgers!
They have even been known to snatch a bear cub for dinner. Talk about bravery (or stupidity?)! 🙂
Golden Eagles are dark brown with gold feathers on the backs of their necks, which is how they got their name. Juvenile birds have white patches on their wings and tails. Immature Bald Eagles and adult Golden Eagles look similar and can be easily confused.
The distinguishing feature between these two birds is that the Bald Eagle doesn’t mind showing a little leg, whereas the Golden Eagle has feathers all the way down to the top of their feet.
Golden Eagle Range Map
These birds of prey prefer vast open areas in Alaska, such as landscapes that include cliffs, mountains, or hills. You can also spot these birds in grasslands, farmlands, shrublands, arctic tundra, and coniferous woodlands.
These eagles are not extremely noisy, and their calls sound like whistles that are weak and high. Just like Bald Eagles, for such a powerful raptor, you would think Golden Eagles would have a much more intimidating sound!
Length: 26-40 inches / 66-100 cm
Weight: 6.5-16 lbs / 3-7 kg
Wingspan: 71-91 inches / 1.8-2.3 meters
To learn more about other birds in Alaska, check out these guides!
21 Types of WATER BIRDS That Live in Alaska (Ducks, herons, loons, etc.)
Which of these birds of prey have you seen before in Alaska?
Leave a comment below!
Some of the range maps above were generously shared with permission from The Birds of The World, published by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. I use their site OFTEN to learn new information about birds!