25 Common Butterflies Found in New Mexico! (ID Guide)

What kinds of butterflies can you find in New Mexico?”

Common Butterflies in New Mexico

I love watching butterflies in my neighborhood! It’s amazing to see the incredible variety of different colors, patterns, and sizes.

There are hundreds of kinds of butterflies in New Mexico! Since it would be impossible to list them all in one article, I chose the most common and exciting species to share with you today. ūüôā

Today, you’ll learn about 25 kinds of butterflies found in New Mexico.


#1. Red Admiral

  • Vanessa atalanta

Types of Butterflies found in New Mexico

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Red Admirals have a wingspan of 1.75 to 2.5 inches.
  • The coloring is dark brown with a reddish circular band and white spots. The underside of the back wings looks similar to bark.
  • The caterpillars are pinkish-gray to charcoal with white spots. They have spines along the back that resemble hairs.

 

The Red Admiral is the most widespread butterfly in New Mexico!

 

Look for this beautiful butterfly near the edge of forests in moist habitats. Red Admiral Butterflies have a unique favorite food – they love fermented fruit! If you’d like to attract them, try placing overripe cut fruit in a sunny spot in your yard.

Red Admirals are migratory butterflies. They fly south toward warmer climates in winter, and then move north again in late spring, where food is more plentiful.

 

If you’re looking for a butterfly in New Mexico that’s easy to observe, you’re in luck! Red Admirals are very calm and easy to approach and frequently land on humans!

 


#2. Painted Lady

  • Vanessa cardui

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Painted Lady butterflies have a wingspan of 1.75 to 2.5 inches.
  • The coloring is pinkish-orange, with dark brown to black markings near the wingtips and white spots inside the black markings.
  • The caterpillars’ coloring is variable, ranging from greenish-yellow to charcoal. Most have light-colored spots.

 

Look for Painted Lady butterflies in New Mexico in open areas that are quiet and undisturbed, like roadsides, pastures, and gardens. This species migrates south to Mexico over winter and returns in the spring.

The population of Painted Lady butterflies can be drastically different from year to year. It’s common for them not to be seen for years in a row in some places, then suddenly show up in more significant numbers.

 

The Painted Lady is the only butterfly that mates year-round! Because of its constant migration pattern, it spends its entire life in suitable areas for its eggs to hatch.

 


#3. Monarch

  • Danaus plexippus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Monarch butterflies have a wingspan of 3.5 to 4 inches.
  • Their recognizable coloring is a “stained glass” pattern of orange with black veins. White dots line the outside edge of the wings.
  • Caterpillars are plump, with black, white, and yellow bands and tentacles on each end of its body.

 

Monarchs are easily the most recognized butterfly in New Mexico!

 

They are famous for their color pattern and migration. Look for Monarchs anywhere there is milkweed, which is the only food source their caterpillars eat.

Most people are familiar with the declining population of Monarchs. However, you might not know that this indicates an overall population decline of many other pollinating species like bees. Planting local milkweed species to attract Monarchs will also help these other species.

 

During migration, usually in mid-September, you may even see groups of hundreds flying south!

 


#4. American Lady

  • Vanessa virginiensis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • American Lady Butterflies have a wingspan of 1.75 to 2.5 inches.
  • The coloring of this species is a brilliant orange with dark borders and markings and white and purple spots. The underwings have an ornate pattern similar to a cobweb.

 

Look for American Lady butterflies in New Mexico near open landscapes with leafy, flowering plants.

On the underside of the wings, American Lady butterflies have eyespots. These circular markings make the butterfly look intimidating to predators, warding off potential danger.

 

Eyespots aren’t unique to butterflies – moths, other insects, and even some fish species display this evolutionary defense strategy!

 

Additionally, American Lady butterflies are nervous and will often take flight at the slightest disturbance.

 


#5. Viceroy

  • Limenitis archippus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Viceroy butterflies have a wingspan of 2.5 to 3.25 inches.
  • Their coloring is deep orange with black edges and veins and white spots on the black border.
  • The caterpillar is a mix of green, brown, and cream colors. It has two “horns” on its head that look like knobby antennae.

 

The first thing you might notice about the Viceroy butterfly is that it’s almost identical to the Monarch! The easiest way to tell them apart is to look for the black line on the bottom wing. This line is present in Viceroys, but not Monarchs.

Even though these two butterflies are similar in appearance, their caterpillars look remarkably different. Viceroy caterpillars are greenish-brown, spiny, and certainly not as beautiful as Monarch caterpillars.

I think of them as the “ugly duckling” of caterpillars, but they’re one of the prettiest butterflies in New Mexico!

 

One other key difference between these two species is that Viceroys don’t migrate. Instead, the caterpillars roll up and hibernate in leaves and emerge during the next breeding season.

 


#6. Hackberry Emperor

  • Asterocampa celtis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Hackberry Emperors have a wingspan of 2 to 2.75 inches.
  • The intricate pattern of this species is amber brown and nearly black, with orange-ringed eyespots and many spots in dark brown and white.
  • Caterpillars are light green with two yellow stripes on the back. Two short spines top the head, and there are two small tails on the rear end.

 

Hackberry Emperor butterflies are common in southeastern New Mexico.

 

Look for them in moist wooded areas, parks, and suburban yards. One place you WON’T find Hackberry Emperors is on flowers since they don’t eat flower nectar at all!

Although flowers don’t attract them, they are naturally curious and will even land on humans who happen to be near them. One reason for this habit is to ingest sodium from our skin! This may be hard to believe, but Hackberry Emperors find the minerals they need to survive in tons of unusual places, like soil, rocks, and even pavement!

 

They also eat sap, dung, carrion, and rotting fruit and drink water from rain puddles. They might be one of the least picky eaters I’ve encountered!

 


#7. Mourning Cloak

  • Nymphalis Antiopa

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Mourning Cloaks have a wingspan of 3 to 4 inches.
  • The coloring is black with an iridescent sheen. A yellow border and a row of purple spots mark the outer edge of the wings.
  • Caterpillars are black with white specks and a row of red spots on the back.

 

Mourning Cloak butterflies are most often found near deciduous forests. However, their habitat includes many developed areas like suburban yards, parks, and golf courses.

 

You might have a hard time finding this butterfly in New Mexico.

 

Even though it’s fairly widespread, its preference for cold weather and solitary habits make it hard to spot even for an avid butterfly enthusiast! In addition, it’s so well-camouflaged when its wings are folded that you might miss one right in front of you.

Mourning Cloaks are often the first butterflies to become active in the spring! In fact, some adults are even active through winter on warm days, when snow is still on the ground.

 

They’re also one of the longest-lived butterflies around, with some individuals living up to ten months!

 


#8. Pearl Crescent

  • Phyciodes tharos

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Pearl Crescent butterflies have a wingspan of 1.25 to 1.75 inches.
  • Their coloring is bright orange with black borders, spots, and lines. The pattern created by the black markings is similar to lace.
  • Caterpillars are dark brown with cream stripes and spines all over their bodies.

 

Look for Pearl Crescent butterflies in southern New Mexico near moist ground.

 

They prefer open, sunny habitats but many locations suit their needs, including forest edges, fields, meadows, and gardens.

The Pearl Crescent caterpillar’s preferred host is the Aster plant. Any flowering plants in your yard will attract this beautiful butterfly, but for best results, try to find one that’s native to your area.

 

When the caterpillars grow into butterflies, they will feed on the nectar of the Asters as well!

 


#9. Question Mark

  • Polygonia interrogationis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Question Mark butterflies have a wingspan of 2.25 to 3 inches.
  • Their coloring is deep orange with black spots and a lavender edge.
  • Caterpillars are gray to black with spines on the side and orange and cream stripes.

 

Look for Question Mark butterflies in moist woodland and forest edges. Their caterpillars’ preferred host plants are elm trees and nettle, so you’re most likely to see this species in areas with elm forests or thickets of nettle, or both.

Question Marks feature bright coloring on the upper side of their wings, but the lower side is mottled brown. This coloring helps to camouflage the butterflies, making them resemble a dead leaf while resting on branches.

 

Their name comes from a slight, light-colored marking on the underside of the wing. It takes some imagination, but this marking sort of looks like a roughly drawn question mark!

 


#10. Variegated Fritillary

  • Euptoieta claudia

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Variegated Fritillary butterflies have a wingspan of 1.75 to 2.25 inches.
  • The coloring of this species is tawny brown to burnt orange with black dots and lines. The outer edge of the wings is also lined in black.
  • Caterpillars are reddish-orange, with white stripes that run the length of the body and black spines.

 

Look for these butterflies in New Mexico in meadows, open lots, and fields.

Plant flowers like butterfly weed, mint, and sunflowers to attract them to your garden. Ornamental plants like violets, pansies, and passionflower serve as hosts for their caterpillars.

 

The Variegated Fritillary’s chrysalis is one of the most beautiful of all the butterflies in New Mexico. This protective shell is where the caterpillar transforms into the adult butterfly. Its pearly white color and shiny gold spikes make it look like an expensive jeweled pendant!

 


#11. Great Spangled Fritillary

  • Speyeria cybele

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Great Spangled Fritillary butterflies have a wingspan of 2.5 to 3.5 inches.
  • Their coloring is orange with black lines and dots that form a web-like pattern on their wings. In addition, the undersides of their wings have silvery white dots outlined in black.

 

The Great Spangled Fritillary is one of many butterflies in New Mexico that prefers open, sunny areas like pastures and meadows.

 

It’s not uncommon to see hundreds of them in large milkweed or violet fields!

This species doesn’t migrate; instead, its caterpillars hibernate over winter and emerge in the spring. That happens around the same time as the new growth on their host violet plants appears.

 

Interestingly, male Great Spangled Fritillaries die weeks before females, right after mating. The females then feed for another two to three weeks and lay eggs before also dying off.

 


#12. Common Wood-Nymph

  • Cercyonis pegala

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Common Wood-Nymphs have a wingspan of 2 to 3 inches.
  • Coloring can vary greatly, but generally, this species is shades of brown with dark eyespots.
  • Caterpillars are yellow-green with dark green stripes and white hairs.

 

Common Wood-Nymphs are found in many different habitats, including open forests, meadows, agricultural fields, and salt marshes. Their caterpillars hatch late in fall and hibernate through the winter.

Look for this species in late summer and early fall since it’s most active this time of year.

 

Adult Common Wood-Nymphs occasionally eat flower nectar but prefer to feed on rotting fruit or decaying plants.

 

This is one of few species whose host plant (which the caterpillar eats) is grass. Kentucky Bluegrass, one of its favorites, is also a popular lawn grass. So, you may not even need to plant anything new to attract this species!

 


#13. American Snout

  • Libytheana carinenta

Identifying Characteristics:

  • American Snout butterflies have a wingspan of 1.5 to 2 inches.
  • The coloring is brown with orange and white patches that resemble a dead leaf. In addition, the upper side of the wings is more heavily patterned and darker in color.

 

One look at this strange butterfly, and you’ll know why it’s called the American Snout! This species’ long, beak-like “snout” is used as camouflage, making the butterfly look more leaf-like.

 

There are no other butterflies in New Mexico with this feature!

 

Even though American Snout butterflies migrate north every year, they’re generally rare in most of their habitat and hard to find because of their excellent camouflage. When they are seen, it’s often in huge migratory groups that are so massive they can darken the sky!


#14. Gray Hairstreak

  • Strymon melinus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Gray Hairstreak butterflies have a wingspan of 1 to 1.5 inches.
  • Their coloring is slate gray with a single bright orange spot on each lower wing. Below, their wings are light gray with a black and white stripe.

 

Look for Gray Hairstreak butterflies in open areas like roadsides, unused pasture, and rural meadows. Their caterpillars use many plants as hosts, so they’re common across many different habitats.

Gray Hairstreaks are one of a few butterflies in New Mexico with thin, long wing tails that resemble hairs.

 

This adaptation is a defensive strategy that draws predators away from the butterfly’s body. By mimicking a head with antennae and using its eyespots as a distraction, Gray Hairstreaks give themselves time to escape!

 


#15. Black Swallowtail

  • Limenitis archippus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Black Swallowtails have a wingspan of 2.5 to 4.25 inches.
  • The coloring is black with rows of light yellow spots. It has one red-orange eyespot and several blue spots on each hind wing.
  • Caterpillars are green with black bands containing yellow spots.

Black Swallowtails are one of the most common garden butterflies in New Mexico.

 

They love flower nectar and frequently stop to drink on garden plants.

Their caterpillars use cultivated herbs like parsley and mint as host plants. They can sometimes be harmful to these plants if they feed too much, so keep an eye on your herb garden if you have Black Swallowtails around!

 

Black Swallowtails are excellent at mimicry, which is an evolutionary defense mechanism. They have developed markings similar to the Pipevine Swallowtail, which is toxic to most predators. In this way, Black Swallowtails can hide in plain sight!


#16. Cabbage White

  • Pieris rapae

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Cabbage White Butterflies have a wingspan of 1.25 to 2 inches.
  • The wings are light greenish to white, with black wing tips and black dots in the center of each wing. Males have one black dot on each side, and females have two.
  • Caterpillars, sometimes called Cabbage Worms, are dark green with a light green stripe along the back.

 

Cabbage White butterflies are well-suited to almost any habitat in New Mexico.

 

The only areas they avoid are dense forests with little room to fly. You can even see this species if you live in the city since they often live in very large metropolitan areas!

Look for Cabbage Whites in the summer, when they are most active and breeding. Their caterpillars, sometimes called Cabbage Worms, are a pest because they often overtake and eat cabbage, kale, nasturtium, and other brassica plants.

 

If you have a vegetable garden and see Cabbage Whites, you should pay extra attention to your plants to ensure these hungry insects don’t ruin them! In fact, Cabbage White butterflies are invasive in New Mexico. This non-native species was transported here through the food and agricultural trade.

 

Since it’s so well-suited to our climate, its population has exploded and it’s now considered one of the most damaging invasive species to crops.

 


#17. Orange Sulphur

  • Colias eurytheme

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Orange Sulphur Butterflies have a wingspan of 1.5 to 2.5 inches.
  • Their coloring is bright yellow-orange with black borders on the wings and irregular black spots.

 

Look for Orange Sulfur butterflies in New Mexico along sunny roadsides, meadows, and gardens.

 

Its preferred food and host plant is Alfalfa, which is how it got the nickname “Alfalfa butterfly”.

The easiest way to recognize an Orange Sulphur is by its flight pattern. They have an erratic, jerky flying style and usually stay low to the ground.

 

You’re likely to see this abundant and widespread species in urban and suburban environments during the spring and summer.

 


#18. Clouded Sulphur

  • Colias philodice

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Clouded Sulphur butterflies have a wingspan of 1.75 to 2.75 inches.
  • This species has two color forms, one white with a light green cast, and one yellow. Both morphs have a red-ringed eyespot and pinkish borders on the wings.

 

Clouded Sulphurs are some of the most common butterflies in New Mexico!

 

This is because they’re prolific breeders and are at home in almost any habitat.

Look for them along roadsides, parks, and home gardens. They are often found in the same area as their closely related cousins, the Orange Sulphur. However, the erratic, jerky flight style of Orange Sulphurs set them apart from most other butterfly species. To properly identify a Clouded Sulphur, look for a “wobbly” flying butterfly.

 

There are two distinct morphs of the Clouded Sulphur. The white morph is primarily white with a greenish tint, and the yellow morph is almost entirely yellow. Interestingly, ONLY females display the white color morph, and males are always yellow.

 


#19. Cloudless Sulphur

  • Phoebis sennae

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Cloudless Sulphurs have a wingspan of 2.2 to 2.8 inches.
  • Their coloring is unmarked, bright lemon-yellow.

 

Cloudless Sulphurs are one of the most recognized butterflies in New Mexico!

 

This is because they’re so widespread and abundant in their habitat, and also because they aren’t shy around humans!

Cloudless Sulphurs are almost always pure yellow, with only a few markings on their wings. Sometimes a small white eyespot ringed in dark red can be spotted on their upper wings.

 

Unfortunately, this species has been impacted by habitat loss due to overdevelopment. While it isn’t considered a threatened species, the Cloudless Sulphur isn’t as prolific as it used to be. One way you can help is to plant flowers that are native to your area, which will naturally attract these cheerful butterflies!


#20. Common Checkered-Skipper

  • Burnsius Communis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are 0.75-1.25 inches.
  • Their coloring is faded white with tan-colored bands and a black or brown edge on the hindwing. From above, they have a distinctive black and white checkered pattern.
  • Females are darker in color.
  • Males are extensively covered with long, bluish-white hairs on the body.

It’s easy to see how this butterfly in New Mexico got its name.

The Common Checkered-Skipper has a distinctive block pattern on its wings that looks like a checkerboard.

Common Checkered-Skipper Range Map

Its favorite host plant is Mallow, and it prefers pastures, open fields, and disturbed sites. This species is often seen next to roads.

Males search out a suitable female to mate with, and then she lays her pale green eggs on the soft parts of the hostplant. Once the caterpillar emerges, it feeds on the host plant and curls the leaves around it for winter protection.


#21. Pipevine Swallowtail

  • Battus Philenor

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are 2-3 inches.
  • Their coloring is largely black, with bright metallic blue near the edges and orange and white spots on the underside.

Pipevine Swallowtails constantly move around in New Mexico to find nectar. They particularly like pink and purple flowers! If you want to attract these beautiful visitors, plant nectar-producing flowers like Phlox.

Males actively seek out females when they are ready to mate. Once the female mates, she places her eggs on the undersides of the host plant. After hatching, the caterpillars feed in groups on host plants in the Aristolochia family, like Virginia Snakeroot and Dutchman’s pipe.

Like many other butterflies, the Pipevine Swallowtail is unpalatable to birds and other predators.


#22. Checkered White

  • Pontia Protodice

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are 1-2 inches.
  • Males are white dark grey markings on the forewings.
  • Females are grayish-white with dark checkers on both the fore- and hindwings.
  • Both sexes have white hindwings with gray, yellow, and brown markings.

Checkered White butterflies are common in New Mexico.

One of the most fascinating characteristics of this butterfly is its ability to use UV signals to communicate. These amazing insects can tell the difference between males and females of their species based on the UV radiation they give off! If a female notices that there are a lot of other females, she will migrate to a less dense population in hopes of attracting a mate.

Checkered White Range Map

Checkered White females lay their eggs on the host plants’ fruits and sometimes the stems. The larvae prefer to eat the flower or fruit of the host plant instead of the leaves. This butterfly prefers open and sunny areas like deserts and plains, and it’s often found in vacant lots, airports, railroads, and dry grassland.


#23. Queen

  • Danaus Gilippus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are about 3 inches.
  • From above, their coloring is bright orange with a black border and many white spots.

Queen butterflies in New Mexico lay eggs on milkweed plants.

The fascinating reason for this comes down to self-preservation! Like other caterpillars, these insects consume Cardiac Glycosides from the milkweed plants. These chemicals taste bad to predators and are carried over to their adult stage, protecting them from being eaten.

Queen butterflies prefer open and arid areas in New Mexico close to milkweed. Males have a black scale patch that releases pheromones, attracting females to mate with. After mating, the female will stay close to the area she found the male and lay her eggs nearby.


#24. Two-Tailed Swallowtail

  • Papilio Multicaudata

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are 3-6.5 inches.
  • From above, their coloring is yellow with black stripes. The hindwings have blue marks and a tiny orange eyespot, as well as thin black stripes and two tails per wing.
  • Females have additional blue markings and a brighter yellow color.

Two-Tailed Swallowtail butterflies in New Mexico prefer areas with open space and plenty of sunlight. Look for them in foothills, canyons, valleys, woodlands, roadsides, parks, cities, and suburb gardens.

Males of this species spend their entire life finding a female to mate with due to their short lifespan. If it takes a long time to find a mate, males search for nutrients in rotten material, dirt, and sometimes feces, an odd behavior called mud puddling.

Although it’s one of the most recognizable features, the Two-tailed Swallowtail doesn’t need its tails to fly. Instead, they’re often used to escape predators. When a predator attacks the Swallowtail and grabs onto its tails, they break off, and the butterfly can escape.


#25. Weidemeyer’s Admiral

  • Limenitis Weidemeyerii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult wingspans are¬†2.25-3.75 in.
  • Their coloring is white and black with a row of white dots spread across the wing. Seen from below, the Weidemeyer’s Admiral is brown with white shapes on the wings.

It can be hard to spot this shy butterfly in New Mexico!

Weidemeyer’s Admirals prefer forests that seasonally shed leaves. This unique, easily spooked butterfly is also found near canyons, shrubby streams, and ravines.

Males are territorial and spend most of the day waiting to intercept a female. They perch six to eight feet above the ground on trees or shrubs and attack other males who come too close. Occasionally the male will patrol his territory to find a female.

After mating, the female will find a suitable host plant and lay her eggs on the tip of its leaves. The Weidemeyer’s Admiral is easily identified due to the unique patterns on its wings that look like military insignia.


Do you need more help identifying butterflies in New Mexico?

 

Try this field guide!

 


Which of these butterflies have you seen in New Mexico?

 

Leave a comment below!

 


If you enjoy this article, make sure to check out these other guides!

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One Comment

  1. I saw a medium size butterfly with rounded black wings the size of a mourning cloak and a yellow band around the outer edge of all four wings. The underside of the wings were pure black. I am trying to identify it. it was puddling or possibly laying eggs in on the mulch in my raised bed near my rose bushes. Location: my rose & vegetable garden in my front yard in Santa Fe, NM.