The 3 Types of Eagles That Live in San Marino! (2023)
What types of eagles can you find in San Marino?
Whenever they appear, I make sure to stop and watch these incredible birds of prey. I’m always amazed at their beauty, large size, and astonishing ability to soar at extreme heights! And I’m not alone, as eagles have a special place in many people’s hearts and minds.
Below are the eagles that live in San Marino!
Make sure to pay attention to the range maps to see which eagles live near you! In addition, I’ve included a few photographs to help you identify any birds you are lucky enough to observe for each species.
#1. Golden Eagle
- Aquila chrysaetos
- Adults have a length of 66 to 100 centimeters and a wingspan of 1.8 to 2.3 meters.
- The coloring is dark brown on the body, with a golden-brown head and yellow feet.
- The head seems small for the body and includes a hooked beak.
Golden Eagles are incredibly fast and agile, which makes them expert hunters. Where other eagles primarily eat fish or reptiles, these eagles almost always eat mammals. Their favorite prey includes rabbits, hares, ground squirrels, and marmots. But these raptors have been known to hunt and kill animals as large as small deer, badgers, or a bear cub. Talk about bravery (or stupidity?)! 🙂
Golden Eagles typically mate for life. To impress a female, male birds pick up a stick or a rock and fly up high, only to drop it. Then the eagle dives to catch the object again before it hits the ground! Once paired up, it’s common for them to hunt cooperatively, where one individual ambushes the prey and drives it towards the second bird to make the kill.
Golden Eagles are common to see in San Marino.
These birds prefer vast open areas that include cliffs, mountains, or hills. However, you can also spot these birds in grasslands, farmlands, shrublands, arctic tundra, and coniferous woodlands.
These eagles are not extremely noisy, and their calls sound like weak, high whistles. For such a powerful raptor, you’d think Golden Eagles would have a much more intimidating sound!
#2. Short-Toed Eagle
- Circaetus gallicus
- Adults typically range from 59 to 70 centimeters long with a wingspan of 162 to 195 centimeters.
- Their coloring is brown with a predominantly white underside.
- Black bars line the underside of their wings and belly and are visible when flying.
Short-Toed Eagles fly more than any other eagle in San Marino! They soar over their territory from a height of up to 500 meters, hunting from the air and diving to catch their prey.
Sometimes called Short-Toed Snake Eagles, this species primarily eats reptiles and occasionally birds and mammals. If they attempt to snatch a snake too large to pick up, they’ll fight it on the ground, grabbing at it with its claws and beak until the snake dies.
This species primarily lives in open plains and semi-desert regions where snakes are plentiful. Short-Toed Eagles in San Marino migrate to avoid cold winters, while those in Asia and the Middle East are year-round residents.
The species has a wide range and a large population, but it isn’t immune to threats from humans. For example, in 1993, 50 Short-Toed Eagles stopped in Malta during their migration, and they were all illegally shot and killed in one day.
You might have heard the call of a Short-Toed Eagle and assumed it was another water bird since they sound similar to gulls!
#3. Lesser Spotted Eagle
- Clanga pomarina
- Adults are typically up to 60 centimeters long with a wingspan of 150 centimeters.
- Their small, light brown head contrasts with their dark brown wings and body.
- Typically they have a white patch on the wings and a V-shaped marking near the base of the tail.
Lesser Spotted Eagles live in open country and lightly wooded grasslands. They are diurnal, meaning they sleep at night and hunt during the day. They primarily live in trees and hunt from perches, gliding down to capture small mammals for meals.
It’s rare for Lesser Spotted Eagles to hunt while flying, but they’ll walk on the forest floor to forage for food. They have keen eyesight and often hunt with other Lesser Spotted Eagles.
This species is one of the most territorial eagles in San Marino and will regularly fight other birds that encroach on its home range. Male Lesser Spotted Eagles are more aggressive than females and usually display aggression toward other males, while females protect nesting and roosting sites. Here, you can see a female doing just that on a nest camera.
Lesser Spotted Eagles are the only species in San Marino with the unusual habit of nest visitation.
The reason isn’t known, but females will often visit the nests of other females and stay for short periods before returning to their own territory. Researchers have discovered that females make these visits even if they aren’t closely related, almost as if they’re visiting for a neighborly chat!
Do you need additional help identifying eagles in San Marino?
Here are a few books and resources you can purchase that will assist! (Links below take you to Amazon)
Which eagles have you seen before in San Marino?
Leave a comment below!