Did you find a salamander in Alabama?
First, congratulations! Although these amphibians are widespread, they can be challenging to locate. The best places to look are in wet habitats under rocks and in creekbeds. Honestly, looking for salamanders is a really fun experience!
Below you will find a list of the most common and interesting salamanders that live in Alabama. You will find detailed pictures, along with range maps for each species to help with your identification!
24 Types of Salamanders in Alabama:
#1. Eastern Newt
- Notophthalmus viridescens
- Larvae are aquatic and have smooth, olive green skin, narrow, fin-like tails, and feathery gills.
- Juveniles are terrestrial and have rough, orangish-red skin with darker spots outlined in black.
- Adults have slimy, dull olive-green skin, dull yellow undersides, darker black-rimmed spots, and a blade-like tail.
Eastern Newts have the most complicated life cycle of any salamander in Alabama!
When they’re first hatched, they spend all of their time in the water. This larval stage lasts for two to five months. After that, they metamorphose into juvenile Eastern Newts.
They live in terrestrial forest habitats for two to seven years during their juvenile stage. Even though they generally remain hidden under moist leaf litter and debris, you may see them moving about on rainy days and nights, foraging insects, worms, and spiders. This is the stage of life you’re most likely to see an Eastern Newt. If you spot one, be careful – they have glands that secrete a potent neurotoxin when they’re threatened.
Finally, Eastern Newts will migrate back to a water source and metamorphose into aquatic adults, where they eat small amphibians, fish, and worms. They can live up to 15 years and spend the rest of their lives in this aquatic form.
Interestingly, Eastern Newts are known for their homing ability, which allows them to travel to and from their breeding ground. Though scientists are unsure of the exact mechanism, the Eastern Newt likely uses magnetic orientation to find its way!
#2. Spotted Salamander
- Ambystoma maculatum
- Adults are 5.9 to 9.8 inches long with wide snouts. They are typically black but may also be bluish-black, dark grey, dark green, or dark brown. Their underside is slate gray or pale pink.
- They have two uneven rows of spots down their back, from just behind their eyes to the tip of their tail. Spots on the head are orange and fade to yellow further down the body and tail.
- Larvae are light brown or greenish-yellow with small darker spots, external gills, and fin-like tails.
The Spotted Salamander is found primarily in hardwood forests with vernal pools, which are temporary ponds created by spring rain. Like many salamanders in Alabama, they require vernal pools for breeding because the fish in permanent lakes and ponds would eat all their eggs and larvae.
These salamanders are fossorial, meaning they spend most of their time underground. Spotted Salamanders are typically only seen above ground just after heavy rain, so you’ll need to get a little muddy to find one! They go dormant underground during the winter months and don’t come out until the breeding season between March and May.
The Spotted Salamander’s eggs are truly incredible. The embryos can host algae inside their eggs, and they are the only vertebrate known to do so. The embryos and algae have a symbiotic relationship. The algae have a suitable habitat, and in return, they produce the oxygen necessary for the embryos to grow and thrive.
#3. Eastern Tiger Salamander
- Ambystoma tigrinum
- Adults range from 6 to 8 inches in length.
- Their coloring is dark gray, brown, or black with brownish-yellow to greenish-yellow markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
- This species has a thick body and neck, short snout, strong legs, and a lengthy tail.
This species is one of the largest terrestrial salamanders in Alabama.
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground in woods, grasslands, or marshes. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights.
Their diet is primarily made up of insects, worms, slugs, and frogs. However, if there’s a prey shortage, they become much less picky. They’ve been observed feeding on baby snakes, newborn mice, and small salamanders of other species. They will even cannibalize their own young in times of low food supply!
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are very long-lived and have been known to reach 16 years of age in the wild. However, individuals in captivity can live much longer, up to 25 years.
Although Eastern and Western Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, because they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Secondly, Eastern Tiger Salamanders are much larger and have a black patch on their snout.
#4. Common Mudpuppy
- Necturus maculosus
- Adults range from 8 to 19 inches in length.
- This species is rusty brown to gray or black with scattered bluish-black or black spots, which sometimes merge to form stripes. The underside is whitish and may also have bluish-black spots.
- The large, bushy, red, or maroon external gills behind the flattened head make this species easy to identify.
Common Mudpuppies are among the most well-known salamanders in Alabama.
These LARGE salamanders can be found in nearly any body of water, including lakes, reservoirs, ditches, and rivers. They are secretive and require habitats with lots of cover, such as boulder piles, submerged logs, tree roots, or vegetation.
Common Mudpuppies are nocturnal and spend their days hiding under rocks. They’re active at night and hunt by walking along the lake or river bottom, but they can also swim. These opportunistic feeders eat whatever aquatic organisms they can catch, including insect larvae, small fish, fish eggs, aquatic worms, snails, and even carrion.
In the spring, when water temperatures don’t fluctuate as much, Common Mudpuppies spend time in shallow water. However, they have been reported in water as deep as 100 feet during the summer and winter!
#5. Four-Toed Salamander
- Hemidactylium scutatum
- Adults grow up to 3.9 inches in length.
- Orangish-brown to reddish-brown coloring with a brighter tail, grayish flanks, and white underside with small black spots.
- They have an elongated body and limbs, short snout, prominent eyes, and four toes on their hind feet.
Adult Four-Toed Salamanders are typically found in hardwood forests near bogs, floodplains, or swamps. They’re almost always found near sphagnum moss, and you’ll want to look under the leaf litter, logs, rocks, or other debris to find them.
As adults, these salamanders primarily feed on small invertebrates such as spiders, worms, and insects. Predators like larger salamanders, snakes, and birds of prey will hunt Four-Toed Salamanders while they forage. If threatened, they may play dead or drop their tails, giving them a chance to escape predators.
Four-toed Salamanders use old underwater burrows or cavities for overwintering. They choose spots deep enough to avoid freezing and often overwinter communally. They’ve even been found in groups with other species, such as the Red-backed Salamander.
Four-toed Salamanders are relatively uncommon throughout their range due to their specialized habitat, so if you see one in the wild, consider yourself lucky!
#6. Marbled Salamander
- Ambystoma opacum
- Adults range from 3.5 to 4.25 inches in length.
- Their coloring is dark brown or black. Males have white crossbands while females have silver or gray.
- Stout-bodied and chubby, females tend to be larger than males.
Marbled Salamanders occupy various damp habitats, from low-lying floodplains to moist, wooded hillsides. However, they spend most of their time underground or beneath rocks, logs, leaf litter, or other debris, so it’s unusual to find one unless you’ve disturbed its hiding place!
Marbled Salamanders in Alabama are considered a keystone species, which is an animal whose disappearance would completely change its ecosystem.
For example, let’s look at the relationship between Marbled and Spotted Salamanders:
Marbled Salamanders eat Spotted Salamander larvae, which eat zooplankton. If Marbled Salamanders were suddenly removed from this food chain, the Spotted Salamander population would explode.
With so many more Spotted Salamanders eating zooplankton, eventually, the zooplankton would become extinct in that area. Then, once their food source disappeared, Spotted Salamanders would also disappear.
For such a small animal, Marbled Salamanders are incredibly important!
#7. Small-Mouthed Salamander
- Ambystoma texanum
- Adults range from 4.3 to 7 inches in length.
- Their coloring is gray or dark brown, with light gray or silvery flecks on the back and gray blotches on black undersides.
- They have a relatively small head and long tail, and males are typically smaller than females.
Small-Mouthed Salamanders prefer wooded areas near wetlands or floodplains, but they also occupy open habitats like agricultural land and prairies. They remain hidden for most of the day, spending their time under rotting logs, rocks, and tree litter. They may also use old mammal and crayfish burrows.
If threatened, Small-Mouthed Salamanders typically raise and undulate their tail while tucking their head beneath it. In addition, their tails have granular glands on the top that produce toxic secretions to deter predators.
You’re most likely to see Small-Mouthed Salamanders as they migrate to nearby breeding ponds in February or March. They typically migrate at night during rainy weather. Their breeding grounds include vernal pools, runoff ponds, flooded areas, and roadside ditches.
#8. Northern Dusky Salamander
- Desmognathus fuscus
- Adults typically range from 2.5 to 4.5 inches in length though individuals up to 5.6 inches have been recorded.
- Their coloring ranges from brown or reddish-brown to gray or olive, with a whitish belly, dark speckles, and somewhat lighter tail.
- The hind limbs are larger than the front limbs, and males are usually longer than females.
Northern Dusky Salamanders are typically found in northern Alabama in moist woodlands close to running water, such as hillside streams. They hide under stones, logs, and leaf litter at the water’s edge. They’re frequently found under rocks or logs partially submerged in streams.
These nocturnal salamanders leave their cover to forage at night. They may be active from dusk until dawn on damp or rainy nights. Interestingly, they have a small range and may only travel a couple of meters away from their territory searching for food.
Northern Dusky Salamanders feed on various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. However, they don’t prefer specific prey and eat whatever is abundant, including crustaceans, earthworms, spiders, insect larvae, ants, centipedes, moths, and mites.
#9. Red Salamander
- Pseudotriton ruber
- Adults range from 4 to 6 inches in length.
- Their coloring is bright-red, salmon-red, or reddish-orange with small brown or black spots and a somewhat lighter belly.
- This species has a stout body, a short tail, and yellow irises.
Red Salamanders in Alabama are easy to recognize because of their bright red coloring and black spots. Unfortunately, they lose some of their brilliance as they age, becoming darker as the black spots blend in.
Like many salamanders, Red Salamanders are nocturnal foragers. You’re most likely to spot them hunting aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates on rainy nights. They’ll consume water beetles, spiders, earthworms, snails, slugs, and other salamanders.
Red Salamanders are a species of least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, it is a protected species in several states. Due to their reliance on clean, woodland streams, Red Salamanders are heavily impacted by habitat loss and degradation caused by deforestation, acid drainage from coal mines, and stream siltation.
- Cryptobranchus alleganiensis
- Adults have a large, flattened body up to 29 inches long with keeled tails, beady eyes, and slimy skin.
- They have thick skin folds down their sides, short legs with four toes on the front legs and five on the back, and adults have gill slits while juveniles have true gills.
- This species is blotchy red or red-brown with a pale buff underside.
The Hellbender is the largest salamander in Alabama!
You might know them by one of their many names, which include snot otter, mudcat, devil dog, Alleghany alligator, mud devil, or lasagna lizard.
The Hellbender’s large, flattened body allows it to stay in place in the shallow, swift streams where it spends most of its life. Hellbenders are dependent on the cool temperatures and highly oxygenated water that the moving current provides. Look for them in river tributaries and runoff streams with a strong current.
Interestingly, the bulk of the mating process is the responsibility of male Hellbenders. First, each male will excavate a brood site, digging a shallow, round depression under a rock or log. Then, males guide an approaching female into the brood site, where she’ll lay 150 to 500 eggs over a two to three-day period.
After laying the eggs, the male drives the female away and guards the eggs until they hatch. During this time, the males will undulate their lateral skin folds to circulate the water and increase the oxygen levels around the eggs. In addition to their lateral folds, they have what’s known as a Lateral Line Organ which allows them to sense vibrations from predators in the water.
Some studies suggest that Hellbenders may live up to 50 years in the wild. This long life can be attributed to their excellent camouflage. They’re practically impossible to see, even when you’re looking directly at them!
Unfortunately, this species has seen dramatic population declines despite an incredible lifespan. Damming, pollution, disease, and over-harvesting all contribute to its decline. As a result, they are listed as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red List.
#11. Southern Two-Lined Salamander
- Eurycea cirrigera
- Adults range from 2.5 to 3.75 inches in length.
- Their coloring is tan to light yellow, with two black stripes running from the eyes down the tail.
- They have a thin body and black flecks on the back.
Southern Two-Lined Salamanders occupy temperate forests in Alabama. As adults, they’re mostly terrestrial, but they migrate to streams for breeding. They spend most of their time in the cool and damp areas under leaf litter or logs. Your best chance to see them is on a damp summer night when they’re likely to emerge from their hiding spots.
Depending upon their location, Southern Two-Lined Salamanders may burrow into the soil to overwinter. In warmer areas, they remain active and feed year-round.
Southern Two-Lined Salamanders are opportunistic predators that consume any small organisms they come across. As adults, they’ve been known to feed on roaches, spiders, ticks and other insects, earthworms, snails, and crustaceans. That’s a pretty varied diet for an amphibian!
#12. Three-lined Salamander
- Eurycea guttolineata
- Adults are slender and range from 4 to 6.25 inches in length.
- Their coloring is tan to light yellow with three bold, black stripes running from the eyes down the tail.
- The underside is olive to dull brown with black and white marbling.
As adults, Three-lined Salamanders are mainly terrestrial. They occupy forests near floodplains, wetlands, and ditches. They sometimes travel into wooded areas farther from water sources during wet weather.
During the day, you’re likely to find nocturnal Three-lined Salamanders under leaf litter, logs, rocks, and other debris. They’re typically found foraging on rainy or humid nights.
Three-lined Salamanders are opportunistic predators and feed on various invertebrate prey. Snails, spiders, millipedes, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies are just a few of the many species they eat.
These salamanders use defensive postures to warn away attacks if a predator threatens them. They curl their bodies, tucking their head underneath, and raise and undulate their tail.
#13. Lesser Siren
- Siren intermedia
- Adults range from 7 to 27 inches in length.
- Adult coloring is gray, brown, or nearly black, occasionally with dark spots and a paler underside. Juveniles have bold red to yellow bands on their heads and stripes running down their bodies, which fade as they age.
- They have elongated bodies with only two small, four-toed limbs behind the head and external gills.
Also known as the two-legged eel, dwarf siren, or mud eel, Lesser Sirens are found in calm, slow-moving backwaters and wetlands. They tolerate cloudy or murky water and prefer habitats with abundant vegetation for hiding. Lesser Sirens can bury themselves in the mud and go dormant if their water source dries up, allowing them to survive in seasonal wetlands.
Lesser Sirens are mostly nocturnal and spend their days hidden in organic matter or mud near the bottom of their water source. To make up for their limited eyesight and murky habitats, they have a lateral line organ, which allows them to sense vibrations in the water.
Unlike most salamanders in Alabama, Lesser Sirens are vocal! When interacting with other Sirens, they produce clicks or yelps and emit a short screeching sound if handled.
#14. Two-toed Amphiuma
- Amphiuma means
- Adults typically range from 14.5 to 30 inches in length though individuals up to 45.8 inches long have been recorded.
- Their coloring is black, dark gray, or dark brown.
- They have a long, eel-like body with two sets of small, two-toed vestigial, virtually-functionless limbs.
Although they’re sometimes called “Congo Eels,” these unique creatures are salamanders, not fish!
Look for Two-toed Amphiumas in shallow, heavily vegetated aquatic habitats. They’ll occupy nearly any wet area, including ponds, marshes, everglades, streams, and even ditches. They prefer sites where they can easily burrow into the mud and vegetation, like muskrat houses and crayfish burrows.
Two-toed Amphiumas are primarily nocturnal. They’re opportunistic feeders and hunt using a “sit and wait” tactic while they remain hidden. They feed on aquatic insects and their larvae, amphibians and reptiles, small mud turtles, small water snakes, fish, mollusks, crayfish, and spiders.
These salamanders’ primary defense against predators is their ability to avoid detection in the mud and debris. However, Two-Toed Amphiumas can deliver a painful bite. Mud snakes have even been found with scars from amphiuma bites!
#15. Spotted Dusky Salamander
- Desmognathus conanti
- Adults range from 2.5 to 5 inches in length.
- Their coloring is tan or brown to nearly black with 6 to 8 pairs of golden or reddish spots on the back and a light underside with dark flecks.
- They have a stout body and moderately keeled tail.
The Spotted Dusky Salamander prefers lowland areas near cool streams, rivers, and seepages. They spend the day hidden under logs, rocks, leaf litter, and other organic debris.
At night they forage along stream banks and water edges. Adults of this species feed on spiders, earthworms, mites, millipedes, and other insects. Adult Spotted Dusky Salamanders can drop their tails to escape if attacked by predators.
Mining and other human activities have resulted in the degradation of the Spotted Dusky Salamander’s natural habitat. As a result, they are considered endangered in some states.
#16. Three-toed Amphiuma
- Amphiuma tridactylum
- Adults typically range from 18 to 30 inches in length though individuals as long as 41.25 inches have been recorded.
- They are uniformly dark gray or brown.
- This species has a long eel-like body, small lidless eyes, gill slits, and tiny three-toed vestigial legs.
Look for Three-toed Amphiumas in aquatic habitats, including lakes, streams, and drainage ditches. They prefer slow-moving, heavily vegetated bodies of water. Despite their small, vestigial legs Three-toed Amphiumas will move over land during and after periods of heavy rain.
Three-toed Amphiumas are nocturnal predators. They feed primarily on crayfish but will also consume insects, fish, small turtles, and skinks. Often these eel-like salamanders will sit with only their head protruding from their burrow and strike prey that wanders by.
Other than snakes, Three-toed Amphiumas have few natural predators. Take care to avoid getting too close or handling this species, though. They generally flee when threatened but deliver a painful bite if grabbed.
#17. Mole Salamander
- Ambystoma talpoideum
- Adults typically range from 3 to 4 inches in length.
- Their coloring is black, brown, or gray with pale bluish or silvery flecks.
- They have large, flattened heads, stout bodies, and two light stripes on their underside.
- The aquatic morph has external gills.
Unlike other salamanders in Alabama, some Mole Salamanders live on land, while others live in water.
Mole Salamander juveniles will either metamorphose into a terrestrial form or grow and remain aquatic. Interestingly, both the aquatic and terrestrial morphs are capable of breeding, and they may even interbreed.
Scientists don’t fully understand why some Mole Salamanders undergo metamorphosis and others don’t. They may be affected by environmental conditions, including prey availability, water level, and predation. One study indicated that aquatic morphs breed earlier and have higher survival rates than terrestrial morphs.
Although they die at a higher rate as juveniles, terrestrial morphs seem to have longer lifespans. Mole Salamanders may live for up to 20 years in the wild.
#18. Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamander
- Desmognathus auriculatus
- Adults range from 3 to 6 inches in length.
- Their coloring is brown to black with 1 or 2 rows of white spots on the sides, a light stripe extending from the eye toward the base of the jaw, and a gray-brown to black underside with small white speckles.
- The hind legs are noticeably larger than the front limbs, and the tail is long and slightly flattened.
These salamanders are typically found in muddy areas close to ponds, swamps, floodplains, and slow-moving or stagnant streams. They’re nocturnal and spend most of their time under logs, rocks, leaf litter, and other debris.
Unlike other terrestrial salamanders, Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamanders rarely stray far from the water. They feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. So, if you want to find one, your best chance is to explore creeks, swamps, or other calm, shallow water.
Some populations of Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamanders have seen unexplained declines across their range since the 1960s. In addition, they’ve disappeared from portions of their range altogether, such as the Florida peninsula.
#19. Long-tailed Salamander
- Eurycea longicauda
- Adults range from 4 to 8 inches in length.
- Their coloring is yellow to brownish-red with many black spots, which may form broken lines and are often more distinct on the tail, and a light yellow or cream underside.
- They have a noticeably long tail, large eyes, and a slender body.
Long-tailed Salamanders prefer wet, covered habitats like the sides of streams, ponds, springs, cave mouths, limestone seeps, and abandoned mines.
Look for these salamanders during the first few hours after sunset on humid or rainy evenings. They’re nocturnal and spend most of the day under rocks, logs, leaf litter, and other debris.
When threatened, this species of salamander will quickly escape into cover. If a predator grabs its tail, it will easily break off, allowing them to escape.
Unlike other salamanders in Alabama, Long-tailed Salamanders don’t display territorial behavior. Groups of 80 individuals have been found under single rocks, and one study found 300 individuals at the end of a mine shaft!
#20. Spring Salamander
- Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
- Adults range from 5 to 7.5 inches in length.
- Their coloring is highly variable: salmon, brownish-orange, yellowish-brown, or red, often with darker spots or a mottled appearance.
- They have a slender build and a light-colored ridge bordered by brown or black runs from the eye to the tip of the snout.
Spring salamanders are semi-aquatic and can typically be found near springs, mountain streams, or caves. During the day, they spend their time beneath logs, rocks, or leaf litter on the edges of these water sources.
They eat various invertebrates like insects, spiders, millipedes, earthworms, and spiders. However, Spring Salamanders won’t hesitate to eat other salamanders, including their own species. Scientists have found that in some populations, the bulk of the Spring Salamander’s diet is made up of other salamanders!
#21. Dwarf Salamander
- Eurycea quadridigitata
- Adults range from 2 to 3.5 inches in length.
- Their coloring is yellow-brown with darker brown blotching and stripes down each side.
- This species has a slender body, a long tail, and four toes on each foot.
Dwarf Salamanders are often found in pine forests and savannas, typically on pond edges or swampy areas. They’ll occasionally occupy hardwood swamps as well. They spend most of their days under logs, rocks, and leaf litter.
Like most salamanders in Alabama, Dwarf Salamanders are nocturnal.
They prey on small invertebrates, including beetles, spiders, millipedes, worms, and crustaceans. Small individuals may primarily feed on zooplankton.
#22. Mud Salamander
- Pseudotriton montanus
- Adults range from 3 to 8 inches.
- Their coloring is red or reddish-brown with black spots, and their color darkens with age.
- They have a stocky body, short snout, short tail, and brown eyes.
Mud Salamanders prefer soft, muddy areas for burrowing. They can sometimes be found in old crayfish burrows. They spend most of their time near burrow entrances and retreat into them when threatened. Their back also gives off toxic secretions to help fend off predators.
Due to their burrowing habits, Mud Salamanders are difficult to spot. Little is known about their feeding habits, but they’re believed to consume insects, earthworms, and arthropods. They may also prey on other salamanders.
Little is known about Mud Salamander populations, and sightings are rare. They are believed to be stable but are susceptible to water quality degradation and habitat loss. They are currently listed as a species of least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
#23. Northern Slimy Salamander
- Plethodon glutinosus
- Adults typically range from 4.7 to 6.1 inches in length though individuals up to 8.1 inches have been recorded.
- Their coloring is black or blackish-blue with numerous silver, silvery-white, or gold spots all over their body.
Northern Slimy Salamanders spend most of their time in moist soil or leaf litter beneath rocks, rotting logs, or other debris near the water. Occasionally they use other animals’ burrows. In cold locations, Northern Slimy Salamanders hibernate below the soil in winter.
They are a territorial species and will defend their territory aggressively. Their name comes from the slimy secretions they give off when threatened by predators. The slime sticks like glue, affecting predators’ movement. Northern Slimy Salamanders may also vocalize when physically disturbed.
Northern Slimy Salamanders are nocturnal. Look for them on moist nights when they feed on ants, bees, wasps, spiders, and insects.
#24. Greater Siren
- Siren lacertina
- Adults range from 7 to 38 inches in length.
- Coloring varies with range, but it is typically olive or gray with yellow or green dots on the sides, and younger sirens may have a light stripe down their sides which fades with age.
- They lack hind limbs and eyelids and have external gills and reduced fore-limbs.
Unlike many salamanders in Alabama, Greater Sirens lack a terrestrial stage and spend their entire lives in aquatic environments. They can be found in heavily vegetated swamps, ponds, ditches, streams, and lakes near coastal areas.
Adults spend most of their time among plant material, sunken logs, or other debris. They can live in seasonal wetlands and bury themselves in the mud to go dormant when temporary ponds dry up. One lab specimen was reported to have been dormant for over five years!
As Greater Sirens often occupy habitats with low visibility, they don’t rely on sight to locate prey. Instead, they have a Jacobson’s organ (a chemical receptor organ also found in snakes), which allows them to smell prey, and a lateral line organ that allows them to sense vibrations in the water. They may also be able to sense disturbances in electrical fields.
When threatened, Greater Sirens may quickly flee using their powerful tails or give off a series of warning sounds. They make yelps, hissing sounds, and croaks similar to the sounds of young ducks. Greater Sirens can also deliver a painful bite.
Which of these salamanders have you seen in Alabama?
Tell us about it in the comments!
Also, if you enjoy this article, make sure to check out these other guides about herps! As you may have guessed, “herps” refers to herpetology, the study of reptiles and amphibians like salamanders.