What kinds of spiders can you find in Newfoundland and Labrador?
Many people are terrified of spiders and find them extremely creepy. This is unfortunate because they are incredibly interesting creatures and crucial to our environment! Luckily, most spiders are harmless, and they control the insect population.
Today, you will learn about the most common spiders that live in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Before we begin, note that the list below is just a fraction of the overall number of spiders found in Newfoundland and Labrador. Because of the sheer number of these arachnids, it would be impossible to cover them all. With that being said, I did my best to develop a list of COMMON spiders that are often seen and easily identified.
10 Spiders in Newfoundland and Labrador:
#1. Wolf spiders
Wolf spiders are one of the most recognizable spiders in Newfoundland and Labrador!
They are found everywhere and in almost any habitat. I know that I see them often when flipping over rocks or logs. Unfortunately, there are so many individual species of wolf spiders that it would be impossible to list them here, especially since most look very similar.
Wolf Spider Range Map
Interestingly, wolf spiders do not make webs to catch their prey. Instead, they wait for an insect to walk by and then chase it down! Likewise, some species will make a burrow and then wait inside for dinner to walk by.
When it comes to arachnids, wolf spiders have incredible eyesight. They also have retroreflective tissue in their eyes, which produces a glow if you flash light at their faces.
Wolf spiders will bite if provoked, but their venom is not dangerous to humans. Bite symptoms are minimal and may cause itching, swelling, and mild pain.
#2. Cellar Spider
- Cephalothorax (head) and abdomen are different shades of brown.
- Less than a 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) body, 2-inch (51 mm) long legs, and the body is the shape of a peanut.
- Some species have 8 eyes, while others only have 6 eyes.
You know that spider that is always in the corners of your basement?
Well, it’s most likely a Cellar Spider! These long, thin, and delicate arachnids are commonly found in Newfoundland and Labrador in homes and buildings. Whenever I clean my basement with a vacuum, a few of these spiders always seem to get sucked inside.
Cellar Spider Range Map
Cellar Spiders do something exciting when their web is disturbed by touch or has entangled large prey. They start vibrating rapidly, which has led to them sometimes being called “vibrating spiders.” They do this behavior to hide from predators or increase the chance of catching an insect that brushed up against their web.
Cellar Spiders are beneficial to have around because they have been known to hunt down and kill venomous spiders.
#3. Crab spiders
- On average, females measure 7–11 mm. Males are much smaller and range between lengths of 2–4 mm.
- Colors range widely based on the specific species. However, the most common colors are pink, yellow, white, green, or brown.
The best places to find crab spiders in Newfoundland and Labrador are near flowers.
Crab spiders don’t use webs to catch their prey. Instead, they sit and wait inside flowers or other vegetation low to the ground for something to eat. Once a suitable victim comes by, they use their long forelegs to ambush it and make the kill. When insects are in short supply, such as during bad weather, they eat pollen and nectar to avoid starvation.
Lastly, many crab spiders have developed a mutualistic relationship with certain plant species since these spiders feed on and help deter harmful insects. Some plants even release an emission after being attacked that helps attract crab spiders in hopes they eat the intruder.
#4. American grass spiders
- Both sexes are shades of brownish-black with stripes running from front to back.
- The abdomen is oblong and has two white stripes broken into sections.
- The head has a lighter stripe running down the middle, dividing the two dark stripes.
Grass spiders are one of the fastest spiders in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Grass spiders are funnel weavers, which means they weave a funnel on one edge of their web. Their webs are not sticky, like other spiders. But once the silk is triggered, they use their speed to run quickly to get their prey.
Fortunately, they are harmless to humans. And they typically stay in their webs unless disturbed.
*The genus Agelenopsis consists of 14 species of grass spiders that live in North America.
#5. Furrow Spider
- Larinioides cornutus
Also known as Furrow Orb Spider or the Foliate Spider.
- Colors can vary from black to gray to shades of red.
- The abdomen is a very large smooth, oval shape.
- Lighter-shaded arrow markings on the abdomen point toward their head. Legs have a similar arrow pattern.
Furrow Spiders are found in Newfoundland and Labrador in moist places, especially by water sources near grass or shrubbery. These arachnids don’t mind being by human structures either, like porches or corners of houses.
Did you know that spiders can’t hear? Furrow Spiders, like other species, actually use the hairs on their legs to sense sound.
Interestingly, these spiders make a new web every night. The reason for this is that they eat their web every single morning!
They rarely bite, but if bitten, you will only have mild pain and little discomfort.
#6. Common House Spider
- Parasteatoda tepidariorum
- Both sexes can appear anywhere from nearly black to a variety of colors.
- They sometimes have patterns of different colors on their body.
- Females are larger than males. Females also have a bulb-like abdomen that males lack.
These spiders are found in Newfoundland and Labrador NEAR PEOPLE!
I know that I always find them in my garage! It always surprises me how small Common House Spiders are, as they are generally only between 5 and 6 millimeters long.
Even though there are probably a few in your house right now, you shouldn’t hate Common House Spiders. They are actually helpful because they feed on small insects and pests in your house, like flies, ants, and mosquitos.
They are relatively docile spiders, but bites do occur mostly due to their proximity to humans. But have no fear; their venom is not dangerous in the least.
#7. Harvestmen (Daddy Longlegs)
- Colors vary; most are dull brown or dull gray, but some may be yellowish, greenish-brown, or reddish.
- Look for a dark blackish streak down the middle and sides.
- Single body region, only two eyes that do not see well.
“Daddy Longlegs” might be the most recognizable spider in Newfoundland and Labrador!
We often see them in our yard, typically hiding underneath my kid’s playground or on rocks or logs. They are also very social, so you will often find them in large groups.
But even though Harvestmen look just like spiders, these arachnids are technically NOT spiders!
They are in the Order Opiliones, have no venom, lack fangs, and do not bite. In addition, Harvestman can swallow solid food, which allows them to eat small insects, fungi, dead organisms, bird dung, and other fecal matter. This differs from spiders that only eat their prey after turning them into a liquid.
As you might guess by their nickname, their legs play a vital part in their life. They use their legs for breathing, walking, smelling, and capturing prey. Males have longer legs than females, which they groom by licking. Seriously, you can watch this behavior in the video above!
#8. Marbled Orbweaver
- Araneus marmoreus
- A large orange abdomen with brown or black marbling, although they range in color (from yellow, white, black, brown, or red).
- Females grow up to 18 mm, with males being half that size.
- The legs are red with black and white banding beginning on the tibia.
Due to the large, orange abdomen, Marbled Orbweavers are often called “Pumpkin Spiders” and are fairly easy to identify. Look for these spiders in Newfoundland and Labrador from mid-summer until the weather turns cold. The best places to find them are in moist, wooded areas along the banks of streams.
Their webs are oriented vertically, and Marbled Orbweavers attach a signal thread to the middle, which alerts them when prey has been captured. Unlike many garden spiders that sit at the center of their web, this species hides in a silken retreat constructed to the web’s side. They often hide under leaves or other debris they have stuck together with webbing, waiting patiently for a meal to get stuck.
#9. Zebra Jumping Spider
- Salticus scenicus
- Their anterior median eyes are large, which gives them excellent binocular vision.
- The coloration looks like a zebra; black with white stripes.
- Female spiders are 5–9 mm long, while males are 5–6 mm.
Zebra Jumping Spiders are found in Newfoundland and Labrador in open, vertical habitats.
Rock faces and tree trunks provide good habitat, but they are also found in close proximity to humans on the walls of buildings and garden fences. You should also check the corners of the windowsills in your house, as they are sometimes found there too. 🙂
Jumping spiders don’t use webs to capture prey but instead use their incredible eyesight for hunting smaller spiders and other invertebrates. Once their victim is sighted, they move slowly toward it until they are close enough to jump on and make the kill, similar to how a cat hunts. Then, just in case they miss the target, they attach a silk thread to a surface so they can climb back up and try again!
To try and impress a potential mate, male Zebra Jumping Spiders will conduct a courtship dance by waving their front legs and pedipalps while also moving their abdomen up and down. A better dance increases the likelihood that the females will want to mate with the male. Males must be VERY careful when approaching the female; if the dance isn’t good enough, they risk being eaten.
#10. European Garden Spider
- Araneus diadematus
Also known as the Cross Spider, Diadem Spider, Orangie, Pumpkin Spider, and Crowned Orb Weaver.
- Colors vary from light yellow to dark gray; the head has thick long hair and looks furry.
- Tiny hairs cover its large abdomen, and spiky hairs cover its legs. The female abdomen is more bulbous shaped than the male’s.
- White markings on the abdomen with four or more segments form a cross. (Can you see it in the picture above?)
Interestingly, the first web the European Garden Spider ever makes is perfectly created. But here is the weird thing…
As time goes on and they build more and more webs, they begin to have more flaws and get sloppy. I guess practice doesn’t always make perfect!
Once they build their web, they sit right in the middle with their head pointing down to the ground waiting for prey. If they should leave their web, they attach themselves to a single trigger line to feel the vibrations of prey that gets attached. It’s like a security system and a dinner bell all in one.
Learn more about animals found in Newfoundland and Labrador!
Do you need more help identifying a spider you found in Newfoundland and Labrador?
Try this field guide!
Which of these spiders have you seen in Newfoundland and Labrador?
Leave a comment below!