What kinds of warblers can you find in Canada?
I’m always amazed at the variety of colors, sizes, and songs of warblers in Canada. It seems impossible that all these little vocalists are related!
Whether you’re a casual observer in your local woods or an avid birder expanding your life list, warblers are a welcome sight (and sound!) on a hike.
38 Warblers in Canada:
#1. Yellow-Rumped Warbler
- Setophaga coronata
- Adults are 12 to 14 centimeters long and weigh 12 to 13 grams.
- Gray, with white wing bars and black on the chest. Patches on the rump and under the wings are yellow.
Yellow-Rumped Warblers are named for the bright yellow patch above their tails.
There are two subspecies of this warbler in Canada. They are closely related but can be distinguished by their throat patch, which is yellow in Audubon’s Warblers and white in Myrtle Warblers.
They are an active species known for catching insects in midair. During winter, they visit feeders with sunflower seeds, raisins, suet, and peanut butter. They also eat winter berries.
Yellow-Rumped Warblers are the most versatile foragers of all warblers in Canada.
They often search for food in trees but will venture to the ground to forage in leaf debris, and they’ve been known to pick through seaweed in coastal areas!
Listen for the Yellow-Rumped Warbler’s loud, clear song, which sounds like “tsee-tsee-TSEE-TSEE-tsee.” It starts soft at the beginning, gets louder in the middle, and then ends quietly.
#2. Wilson’s Warbler
- Cardellina pusilla
- Adults are 9 to 12 centimeters long and weigh 5 to 10 grams.
- Greenish and yellow coloring across the body, with gray-brown wings. Males have a black cap.
The males of this species also have a unique feature that makes them easy to spot. Their black cap is small and round, resembling a toupee! Females may have dark spots or a greenish wash on their heads, but only the males have the black cap.
Unlike other warblers in Canada, Wilson’s Warblers are more comfortable on the ground or in the forest understory. This makes them easier to spot without craning your neck! They often nest on the ground, concealed in shrubs at forest edges.
Wilson’s Warblers make a high-pitched “tchee-tchee-tchee-tchee” noise when singing. It’s quick and repeated often.
#3. American Yellow Warbler
- Setophaga petechia
- Adults are 10 to 18 centimeters long and weigh 7 to 25 grams.
- Lemon-yellow across the whole body, with light chestnut streaks on the chest. Males are somewhat brighter than females.
Listen for this species in moist forests of small trees. Its particular favorite nesting habitat is willow groves.
American Yellow Warblers are frequent victims of brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds, who lay their eggs inside the nest of these warblers! But they have a unique way of combating this. They’re known to build a new nest directly on top of their old one, smothering their eggs in addition to the cowbirds’ eggs. As a result, researchers have found nests up to six layers deep!
With its bright yellow coloring and relatively large population, this is one warbler you shouldn’t have trouble finding. The song of the American Yellow Warbler is said to sound like “sweet, sweet, sweet; I’m so sweet!”
#4. American Redstart
- Setophaga ruticilla
- Adults are 11 to 14 centimeters long and weigh an average of 8.6 grams.
- Males are black with bright red-orange patches on the tail, wings, and sides. The belly is white.
- Females are charcoal gray with a white belly and light yellow patches instead of red-orange.
The American Redstarts’ abundance and bright coloring make them one of the more easily spotted warblers in Canada!
This beautiful species is high-energy and constantly moving. American Redstarts use their bright coloring to hunt insects, flashing their tail feathers to startle them into flight. Once the insect takes off, the bird snatches it right out of the air! That’s one stylish way to “catch” a meal! 🙂
The American Redstart song is often compared to a sneeze, with a few short notes at the beginning and an abrupt, loud end: “ah-ah-ah-CHEW!”
#5. Orange-Crowned Warbler
- Leiothlypis celata
- Adults are 12 to 14 centimeters tall and weigh an average of 9 grams.
- Their coloring is mottled yellow-green and gray, with gray wing bars.
Unless you’re fortunate and highly observant, you may never see the orange patch that gives the Orange-Crowned Warbler its name! It’s only visible when the “crest” feathers are raised, so catching a glimpse of this tiny bit of color is nearly impossible.
Its high, trilling song lasts about one second and is repeated often. It dips in pitch slightly at the end.
#6. Nashville Warbler
- Leiothlypis ruficapilla
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh up to 13.9 grams.
- Their coloring is yellow below with gray upperparts and a white patch near the legs.
Nashville Warblers have two completely separate breeding areas that don’t overlap! The western population was once considered a distinct species, called the Calaveras Warbler, and generally has a brighter yellow color with a larger white patch.
Nashville Warblers are one of the longest-lived warblers in Canada. The oldest known individual was aged ten years and two months!
One way to identify the Nashville Warbler is to think of a beverage often enjoyed in Nashville; its song sounds like “sipa sipa sipa sipa tea-tea-tea-tea!” 🙂
#7. Common Yellowthroat
- Geothlypis trichas
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh an average of 8.5 grams.
- Males and females have distinctly different coloring; although both sexes are yellow and gray, males have a black mask on the eyes that sets them apart.
One look at a male Common Yellowthroat will tell you why this species is also called the Yellow Bandit! The males’ distinctive black eye markings set it apart from other warblers in Canada.
Like most warblers, Common Yellowthroats migrate at night during the fall. Nighttime migration helps warblers avoid predators and poor weather conditions like excessive heat and wind.
An advantage for bird enthusiasts is that these species are much easier to spot during migration while resting during the day! With a bit of patience, you might also catch a flock in migration at night, visible against a full moon.
Common Yellowthroats have a distinctive song that’s easy to recognize. Listen for “witchety-witchety-witchety” repeated up to 300 times an hour!
#8. Black-and-White Warbler
- Mniotilta varia
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters tall and weigh up to 8 grams.
- Their coloring is black and white, with white eyebrows and two black streaks and a middle white streak on the head.
- The body coloring is streaked black and white, with black wings and two white wing bars.
Black-and-White Warblers are one of the most striking warblers in Canada!
Their contrasting black and white streaks make them look like they’ve been painted in zebra print. Both males and females have black and white streaks on their heads and white eyebrows with a black bar underneath.
Look for this warbler in mature forests with a mix of deciduous and coniferous trees. Black-and-White Warblers have also been known to live in swampy forests in the southern part of their range.
Like most other warblers, they eat insects and spiders, but they’re unique in how they forage. Instead of picking through leaf litter on the ground, these talented birds walk up and down tree trunks searching for tasty bites in the bark!
Black-and-White Warbler song is high and clear, sounding like “weesa weesa weetee weetee weetee weet weet weet.”
#9. Northern Waterthrush
- Parkesia noveboracensis
- Adults are 11 to 15 centimeters tall and have a wingspan up to 9.5 inches.
- The body shape is small and round with a flat head.
- Their coloring is brown above with a cream belly and black streaks. A streak above the eye is usually cream but sometimes white.
Look for Northern Waterthrush near calm water like ponds, small lakes, or deep swamps. They’re almost always found near water, even while they’re migrating.
The Northern Waterthrush eats insects and snails from the ground and nests close to the ground in tree trunks or root tangles.
This species has the fascinating habit of “commuting” from its roosting site to a foraging area during winter! They travel up to 1.9 kilometers to feed and then return to their nest at the end of the day.
Listen for their call, a loud, short “spwik” noise, or their song, which is a series of chirps that fall in pitch at the end.
- Seiurus aurocapilla
- Adults are 11 to 16 centimeters tall and have a wingspan up to 10 inches.
- Their coloring is olive-brown with a white belly. The chest is streaked with black. The head has an orange streak in between two black streaks.
- They are plump at the start of migration but thin-bodied when they return from winter.
Ovenbirds are often mistaken for thrushes because they’re larger than most other warblers. Look for this species in deciduous forests with closed canopies, its preferred breeding habitat.
This species spends more time on the ground than most other warblers in Canada. They even place their nests, called “ovens” because of their domed shape, on the ground! They eat snails and insects on the forest floor, foraging with a jerky walk.
Ovenbirds migrate south for the winter and occasionally have crossed the Atlantic Ocean! They have been found in Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway. That’s a long way from home for such a tiny bird!
Male and female Ovenbirds look and sound similar. Their main song is a repeated “chur-TEE, chur-TEE, chur-TEE” without long pauses.
#11. Tennessee Warbler
- Leiothlypis peregrina
- Adults are up to 11 centimeters tall and weigh an average of 10 grams.
- Males have white undersides and gray wings, with a yellow back. The head is gray, with a white eyebrow and gray eye streak.
- Females are yellow-green with gray wings. The undersides are usually white, sometimes with a yellow wash.
Surprisingly, Tennessee Warblers don’t breed OR spend their winters in Tennessee!
This species was named for an individual collected there, probably during migration.
The Tennessee Warbler kept its confusing name because of its nondescript appearance. If we were to call it something based on its looks, it might be the “Typical Warbler” or “Small Grayish Songbird” :-).
Even though its looks are plain, the Tennessee Warbler’s song is anything but! It has a high-pitched, clear, chirping song that starts slow and gains speed toward the end. It sounds like they’re trying to rush to finish the song before being cut off!
#12. Mourning Warbler
- Geothlypis philadelphia
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh 11 to 13 grams.
- They are yellow underneath and olive-green above, with a gray hood in females and near-black in males.
The easiest way to identify Mourning Warblers in Canada is to look at their eyes.
While many similar species have white eye-rings or markings, the black eyes of the Mourning Warbler blend into the dark hood coloring on their head. Look for Mourning Warblers in dense second-growth forests.
Mourning Warblers might be considered a bit of a picky eater! They have the unusual habit of removing the legs and wings of insects before they eat them. Occasionally, they eat plant material like berries and seeds, but insects make up most of their diet.
Mourning Warblers are also known to have a more musical, pleasant voice than some of their closest relatives. Listen for a bright song: “chirry, chirry, chirry, chorry, chorry.”
#13. Northern Parula
- Setophaga americana
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh 5 to 11 grams.
- Blue-gray above and white below, with yellow patches on the chest and back.
Northern Parulas live in forests with hanging mosses like Spanish moss and beard lichen. They use these plants as nest bedding and spend most of their time high in the forest canopy. So looking for these little warblers can easily give you a case of “warbler neck!”
Interestingly, Northern Parulas that live in the west have a different song than those in the east. Eastern individuals sing a nasal buzzing trill, about one second long. The western birds’ song is longer and less buzzy.
Even though this species doesn’t visit feeders, you can still plant native shrubs and flowers to help it during migration.
#14. Magnolia Warbler
- Setophaga magnolia
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters tall and weigh 6 to 12.5 grams.
- Yellow, gray, and black with white patches.
Magnolia Warblers are generally small but have relatively long tails for their size. To identify this species, look for a white patch near the base of the tail and black tail-feather tips. Males have a black mask and white eyebrow, while females have a less-prominent gray cap.
This species spends winters south of the U.S. in the Caribbean and Mexico. It travels nearly the entire way through the country to get to its northern breeding grounds!
Like many other warblers, this species has two different types of songs: one is used for courtship and mating, and the other is used to mark their territory. Both are three short notes accented at the end, but the territory call is more musical.
#15. Bay-Breasted Warbler
- Setophaga castanea
- Adults are 13 to 16 centimeters long and weigh on average 12.5 grams.
- Males are black and white, with ruddy chestnut markings on the head and chest.
- Females are olive-green with white and brown wings.
Bay-Breasted Warblers live primarily in mature conifer forests. They spend much of their breeding season in the boreal forest, where they are numerous and easy to find. However, they’re solitary and not as easy to spot during their migration.
Bay-Breasted Warblers in Canada are specialist predators of spruce budworms, a caterpillar native to their range. The population of this warbler has been known to fluctuate depending on the budworms’ population. Sometimes it will disappear entirely from an area if food is scarce. However, the warbler population can rebound into the thousands during budworm outbreaks!
Listen for their clear, loud song, which sounds like “tsee-tsee-TSEE.”
#16. Blackburnian Warbler
- Setophaga fusca
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh 8 to 13 grams.
- Males of this species have a brilliant yellow-orange face and throat with black stripes. The body is striped black and white.
- Females have the same general pattern but are much duller and more yellow than white.
The Blackburnian Warbler’s bright orange coloring and a triangular eye patch is the easiest way to identify this species. It may be black in adult males and gray in immature or female birds, but it’s evident in all plumage and seasons.
Look for Blackburnian Warblers in mixed forests, where they spend their time high in the treetops foraging insects. To attract migrating Blackburnian Warblers, consider a birdbath or water dripper, which may entice them to leave their canopy roost in search of a drink.
Blackburnian Warblers sing a unique song, which is so high-pitched at the end it can be hard to hear! It’s a series of notes that sound like “zip-zip-zip-tititi-TCHEEE.”
During the beginning of the mating season in the spring, you might be lucky enough to catch this species marking its territory. The mating males do an acrobatic, looping “ballet,” chasing others away from prime locations.
#17. Chestnut-Sided Warbler
- Setophaga pensylvanica
- Adults are 11 to 14 centimeters long and weigh 8 to 13 grams.
- Their coloring is primarily black and white, with yellow on the head and back and a distinctive chestnut stripe on the sides.
Chestnut-Sided Warblers are one of the most recognizable warblers in Canada!
Their multicolored pattern and dark reddish-brown stripe make them stand out among the young deciduous trees they prefer to nest in. Look for this species lower in trees than other warblers since it often forages at the base of shrubs.
The most common mating song of Chestnut-Sided Warblers is an accented series of notes that sounds like “pleased-pleased-pleased-to-MEECHA.” They also sing an unaccented version, “please-please-please,” to mark their territory.
They have a solitary and very territorial personality, and it’s not uncommon to see males chasing other birds away from their area.
#18. Blackpoll Warbler
- Setophaga striata
- Adults are 11 to 15 centimeters long and weigh 12 to 15 grams.
- Their coloring is black, white, and gray. A black cap, white cheeks, and gray-barred wings are typical.
The Blackpoll Warbler’s song is so high-pitched it’s sometimes called nature’s hearing test! The fast, chipping song can easily be confused for an insect. It lasts about three seconds and sounds like “tsit tsit TSIT TSIT tsit tsit.”
Blackpoll Warblers travel huge distances between their breeding grounds and their winter habitat for such small birds. They can fly nonstop for up to three days over the open ocean to their winter home!
This migration takes a combination of endurance, food stores, and prevailing wind that pushes them toward their destination. It’s truly an incredible feat!
To help this little bird with its annual trip, consider planting native trees or bushes that the warblers can use as a resting and foraging stop.
#19. Black-Throated Blue Warbler
- Setophaga caerulescens
- Males are larger warblers with a small bill—deep blue on upperparts and white underneath, with a black face and throat.
- Females are greenish-gray all over; some have tints of blue on their wings or tail feathers.
- Both sexes have a white square patch on their wings, which will help to identify them.
This warbler breeds in Canada and migrates south to the Caribbean for the winter. And who wouldn’t want to do that!
You will typically find Black-throated Blue Warblers in forests foraging on low twigs looking for spiders or caterpillars.
Males sing to defend their territory and chase off other males. The songs are three or four syllables of rising notes, slightly deeper than other warblers. A funny way to remember their sound is to think of the phrase,“please, please, please squeeeeze.”
#20. Cerulean Warbler
- Setophaga cerulea
- Small warbler with a small bill that sits in a horizontal position.
- Males are sky blue with a white belly and black streaks all over. The wing has two white lines.
- Females are blue-green and mostly yellow all over—faint white over the eye and two white stripes on the wings.
The female Cerulean Warbler is known to have an odd way of leaving the nest. Some call it bungee jumping. First, they fall out the side of the nest with their wings down; then, once she clears the nest, she will begin to fly.
These warblers spend summer in Canada, then migrate a long distance to South America.
Cerulean Warblers can be hard to see! They prefer the tops of the canopy WAY up in forests, where they forage for insects on the branches.
You have a better chance of hearing one before seeing it. Listen for the males’ buzzy song, which it sings while searching for food in the trees. It often comes in a series of three buzzy notes, then a high-pitched trill, followed by a lower warble.
#21. Louisiana Waterthrush
- Parkesia motacilla
- Adults are 14 to 17 centimeters tall and have a wingspan up to 10 inches.
- Their coloring is brown above with a cream belly and black streaks. The legs are long and pinkish.
The Lousiana Waterthrush is the largest wood-warbler in Canada!
Nearly all Louisiana Waterthrush will have left North America by late August each year. They also return from their wintering home sooner than most other songbirds, arriving in early March.
Male Louisiana Waterthrushes have a distinctive song that sounds like a descending scale followed by a warbling note. However, they only sing in their breeding grounds and are silent at their winter home!
#22. Blue-Winged Warbler
- Vermivora cyanoptera
- Adults are about 11 centimeters tall and weigh up to 8.5 grams.
- Males are a beautiful bright yellow with contrasting gray-blue wings and a black eye streak.
- Females are slightly lighter yellow with a gray eye streak.
Look for Blue-Winged Warblers in Canada in abandoned fields at the edge of forests.
This beautiful yellow bird gets its name from its blue-gray wings, especially visible against its yellow body.
Although this species primarily eats insects, it is a generalist and will change its diet based on what is available. For example, the Blue-Winged Warbler might dine on spiders almost exclusively during one season and switch to aphids the next season if they’re more plentiful. This little bird isn’t picky!
Blue-winged Warblers have a short, trilling song that sounds like “bee-buzz,” repeated multiple times.
#23. Golden-Winged Warbler
- Vermivora chrysoptera
- Adults are about 11 centimeters tall and weigh up to 10 grams.
- Their coloring is light and dark gray with a yellow cap and wings.
- They have a black throat patch and eye streaks.
Golden-Winged Warblers prefer open, scrubby landscapes and wetland areas for their habitat. They nest on the ground or low in bushes, with a cup-like nest.
Their yellow wings are more prominent in males, with females generally lighter in color.
Golden-Winged Warblers migrate each year from their breeding grounds in Canada to Central and South America. Interestingly, the vast majority (70%) of the world’s population of this species breeds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Manitoba!
To hear the Golden-Winged Warbler’s song, listen for a series of trilling notes: “bzzzzz buzz buzz buzz.”
#24. Brewster’s Warbler
- Vermivora cyanoptera x chrysoptera
- Adults are about 11 centimeters tall and weigh up to 10 grams.
- The coloring is pale cream to gray, with gray-blue wings, yellow wing bars, and a yellow cap.
- They do not have a black throat patch.
In some areas, it’s slowly replacing the Golden-Winged Warbler as that species’ population declines.
Brewster’s Warblers are similar to Blue- and Golden-Winged Warblers in their preference for open, scrubby habitats near mature forests. They also have a similar diet of ground-dwelling insects and spiders.
Their song, however, is very different from both species! Listen for a short “ehhh” note followed by a longer, lower-pitched “ahhhh” sound.
#25. Lawrence’s Warbler
- Vermivora cyanoptera x chrysoptera
- Adults are about 11 centimeters tall and weigh up to 10 grams.
- Their coloring is primarily yellow, with gray-blue wings and tail feathers.
- The throat is black, and the eyes have a black streak.
Lawrence’s Warblers are the much more rare, genetically recessive hybrid of the Golden- and Blue-Winged Warblers. Besides their coloring, which includes the black throat patch typical of Golden-Winged Warblers, they are similar to both species.
Look for Lawrence’s Warblers near mature forests, in abandoned fields with brush to nest in. But, don’t be surprised if you don’t find one!
There are even fewer Lawrence’s Warblers than Golden-Winged Warblers; they are the rarest of this genus’ breeds and hybrids. As a result, experienced birders with huge life-lists often never see one of these truly rare birds!
Similar to Blue-winged Warblers, Lawrence’s Warblers have a short, trilling song that sounds like “bee-buzz,” repeated multiple times.
#26. Prothonotary Warbler
- Protonotaria citrea
- Adults are up to 13 centimeters tall and weigh up to 12.5 grams.
- Lemon-yellow bodies and heads with blue-gray wings. Males have an orange cast to the head.
- Black eyes, beak, and legs.
Prothonotary Warblers are the only warbler in Canada that nests in cavities.
Instead of using the ground or a low bush, this species will build a nest in unused woodpecker holes or tree cavities. Look for Prothonotary Warblers in mature forests near densely forested streams. You may catch one foraging on the bank for insects and snails!
Prothonotary Warblers are also distinctive while in flight because of their two-toned tail feathers. The base of the tail is white, and the tips are dark gray.
Males and females have very different body shapes. Males are rounder and fuller in the neck. Females have a more streamlined body, long neck, and olive-green coloring on the back and head.
Their song is easy to identify; it’s a series of loud notes that sound like sweet-sweet-sweet-sweet-sweet.”
#27. MacGillivray’s Warbler
- Geothlypis tolmiei
- Adults are 10 to 15 centimeters long and weigh an average of 14.5 grams.
- Coloring is yellow to olive green on the body, with a blue-gray hood.
- Males are brighter in color, with a black patch on the eye. Females lack the black patch and have a lighter gray hood.
They move in sudden, bursting hops along the forest floor. MacGillivray’s Warblers definitely aren’t the most agile birds you’ll see!
They’re quite easy to spot during migration, resting in dense thickets during the day. Their cheerful call and bright patterned coloring make them a welcome sight on a hike.
The MacGillivray’s Warbler song is trilling and high, with an inflection near the middle: “jeet jeet JEET jeet jeet.”
#28. Hooded Warbler
- Setophaga citrina
- Adults are up to 13 centimeters long and weigh 9 to 12 grams.
- Predominately brown and yellow, males have a black “hood” encircling their yellow face.
Male Hooded Warblers are easily recognized by their ski-mask type markings.
Although the distinctive black hood can help you identify male Hooded Warblers, females and younger individuals are harder to spot because they have a gray head cap. As a result, they appear similar to other, more common warblers in Canada.
Male Hooded Warblers can recognize the song of other males of the same species. This is thought to help avoid territorial conflicts by signaling to neighboring birds that they’ve reached another birds’ territory.
Listen for their clear, whistling song, which sounds like “wheeta wheeta whee-tee-oh.”
#29. Cape May Warbler
- Setophaga tigrina
- Adults are 12 to 15 centimeters long and weigh 9 to 17 grams.
- Yellow, olive green, and brown with a red eye patch.
Look for Cape May Warblers in Canada at the edge of coniferous woods. They prefer to nest near the trunk of black spruce trees. Cape May Warblers lay the most eggs of any warbler, up to 9 in a single brood!
This species eats spruce budworm, a type of caterpillar plentiful in their breeding area. The spruce budworm is an extremely destructive pest to spruce-fir forests, so Cape May Warblers are essential to their ecosystem!
The reddish patch near the eye on males of the species is a sure sign you’ve seen a Cape May Warbler. On both male and female birds, look for a tiger-striped yellow belly and white bars on the black and yellow wings.
Their clear, high song sounds like “tsee-tsee-TSEE-TSEE,” starting soft and getting louder at the end.
#30. Palm Warbler
- Setophaga palmarum
- Adults are 12 to 14 centimeters long and weigh 12 to 15 grams.
- The coloring is generally a mix of olive, yellow, and white, but is varied between the eastern and western subspecies.
Look for Palm Warblers in Canada in open, weedy fields with scattered trees and bushes.
This species is one of few warblers that displays very different plumage based on location. Yellow or Eastern Palm Warblers have a lemon-yellow body and an olive back in the east. Western Palm Warblers, in contrast, have a white to brown base color with a yellow patch on the chest. Both subspecies have distinctive rust-colored caps during the breeding season.
Despite their varied appearance, Palm Warblers’ songs are similar across the continent: a loud, buzzy trilling noise.
#31. Pine Warbler
- Setophaga pinus
- Adults are 13 to 15 centimeters long and weigh an average of 12 grams.
- Their coloring is yellow, white, and black. Males have more yellow than females and are usually brighter.
- Both sexes have two white wing bars on a dark background.
Pine Warblers are unique among warblers in Canada.
Unlike their relatives, they will eat seeds and have been known to visit feeders during migration and in winter. Offer cracked corn, millet, peanuts, and suet to attract these bright songbirds. Their summer diet is made up mostly of pine seeds, which they pick from pinecones with their long, pointed beaks.
Pine Warblers migrate, but their range is much more restricted than most warblers. They spend the entire year in the continental U.S., flying to southern states for winter and breeding in northern states during the summer.
Their song is a fast, trilling series of 10 to 30 notes.
#32. Prairie Warbler
- Setophaga discolor
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh an average of 8 grams.
- Primarily yellow, with heavy black streaks. Males usually have a chestnut patch on their backs.
Even though their name suggests they prefer open fields and grassy areas, this species lives primarily in wooded habitats.
Prairie Warblers are at home in stands of young pine trees and second-growth forests. One of the easiest places to spot this species is Christmas tree farms!
Look for a smaller bird that constantly bobs its tail up and down. Listen for its two similar songs, one for courtship and the other for marking territory. The quick, five- to six-syllable song rises sharply in pitch and sounds similar to a cricket’s chirping.
#33. Townsend’s Warbler
- Setophaga townsendi
- Adults are 11 to 13 centimeters long and weigh an average of 8.8 grams.
- Black, white, and yellow coloring on both males and females. Their cheek patch is black in males, and dark olive in females.
Look for this species in mature conifer woods with brushy undergrowth. During the fall migration and over winter, you may attract Townsend’s Warblers to your feeders when the temperature is below freezing. Offer high-energy foods like suet, peanut butter, and mealworms.
Listen for their buzzy, trilling song, which has been said to have a dreamy, sweet quality.
#34. Canada Warbler
- Cardellina canadensi
- Adults are 12 to 15 centimeters long and weigh 9 to 13 grams.
- Their coloring is slate gray above, yellow below, and they have a black “necklace” of streaks around their throat.
This species has two striking features that help to distinguish it from other warblers in Canada. The bright whitish eye-rings give this bird a permanently surprised expression, and its “necklace” of black markings helps it stand out among its relatives. These features are most evident in males, and while females have a necklace, it generally isn’t as defined or dark.
Canada Warblers are excellent travelers, migrating up to 4,800 kilometers from their winter homes to their breeding grounds.
They have a loud song, but it’s highly variable and unreliable for identification. Its warning call, a series of “chups,” can be heard during migration.
#35. Black-Throated Green Warbler
- Setophaga virens
- Adults are 11 to 12 centimeters long and weigh 8 to 11 grams.
- They are olive-green on the head and back, black and white below and on the wings, and a yellow mask on the face.
Listen for Black-Throated Green Warblers’ songs, which are often described as “trees, trees; I love trees!“ They aren’t picky about their habitat and will nest in coniferous, deciduous, or mixed forests.
They have even been known to inhabit cypress swamps in parts of their range.
Black-Throated Green Warblers are prolific and loud vocalists! They often sing throughout the day during the mating season. One individual who was recorded for an hour even managed to sing his mating song 466 times in a row! It sounds similar to “hee-hee-hee-hee-HA-hee.”
#36. Connecticut Warbler
- Oporornis agilis
- Adults are 13 to 15 centimeters long and weigh an average of 15 grams.
- They have a distinct two-toned pattern, a whitish-gray head and neck, and a yellow body.
- Their white eye-rings give them a wide-eyed, surprised look.
Connecticut Warblers are infamously challenging to find in Canada!
They’re secretive, shy birds with a short song and unobtrusive habits.
This species prefers remote bogs and deciduous forests, far from human interaction. Connecticut Warblers are also relatively solitary birds, and it’s unusual to find them in pairs or groups except during fall migration. Because of its secretive nature and remote habitat, only one study of a nesting pair has ever been done.
If you find a Connecticut Warbler in the wild, consider yourself lucky to add it to your life list!
Its song is a high and musical “chippy-chuppy, chippy-chuppy, chippy-chuppy,” repeated often.
#37. Black-Throated Gray Warbler
- Setophaga nigrescens
- Adults are up to 13 centimeters long and weigh an average of 8.5 grams.
- They are gray with black streaks and a white underside. They have a single yellow dot in the corner of the eye.
Though they aren’t as well-studied as other warblers in Canada, they can be recognized by their yellow eye dot and black and white streaky coloring. Females are smaller, plumper, and have larger heads than males.
Even though Black-throated Gray Warblers are approachable and easy to observe, almost nothing aside from their appearance is known about them.
If you don’t live in its range but think you’ve spotted one of these distinctive birds, you’re probably right! Black-Throated Gray Warblers live west of the Rocky Mountains, but a few get blown off course every year and end up in the eastern US!
Listen for Black-Throated Gray Warblers singing their “zeedle zeedle zeedle zeet-chee” song.
#38. Kirtland’s Warbler
- Setophaga kirtlandii
- Adults are 14 to 15 centimeters long and weigh 12 to 16 grams.
- Their coloring is bluish-gray above with a yellow underside and black bars on their backs and wings.
This species has the most specialized breeding habits of any warbler in Canada!
There are so few Kirtland’s Warblers that only 50 years ago, the species was on the brink of extinction. Luckily, conservation efforts and reforestation projects managed to save this tiny bird, and its population is recovering. At one point, there were thought to be only 167 breeding males left!
Now their population numbers have rebounded to about 2,300 breeding pairs. 🙂
Besides habitat loss, the biggest threat to Kirtland’s Warblers is Brown-Headed Cowbirds. This brood parasite bird lays its eggs in the warbler’s nest, taking food resources away from newly hatched warblers. Brown-headed Cowbird traps have helped to mitigate this threat to Kirtland’s Warblers.
Do you need help identifying or attracting warblers in Canada?
Here are a few resources that can help!
How many of these warblers have you seen before in Canada?
Leave a comment below!
To learn more about birds in Canada, check out my other guides!
26 Types of WATER BIRDS That Live in Canada(Ducks, herons, loons, etc.)
26 Types of BIRDS OF PREY That are Found in Canada! (Hawks, owls, eagles, etc.)