29 COMMON Amphibians in the United States (2022)

Are you wondering what amphibians you can find in the United States?

common amphibians in the united states

 

This is a great question! Although amphibians are widespread, they can be challenging to locate. Most amphibians, including frogs, toads, and salamanders, are secretive and shy. But in my opinion, looking for amphibians is a really fun experience!

 

Below you will find a list of the most COMMON and interesting amphibians that live in the United States. In addition, you will find detailed pictures, along with range maps for each species to help with your identification!

 

  • RELATED: Reptiles in the United States

 

29 Types of Amphibians That Live in the United States:


#1. American Bullfrog

  • Lithobates catesbeianus

Types of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body lengths range from 3.6 to 6 inches.
  • Coloration is typically olive green, with some individuals having gray or brown spots.
  • Fully webbed back feet.

 

The American Bullfrog is one of the largest amphibians in the United States!

 

Believe it or not, they can grow to weigh as much as 1.5 pounds (.7 kg). Bullfrogs can be found in permanent bodies of water, including swamps, ponds, and lakes.

American Bullfrog Range Map

american bullfrog range map

Green: native range. Red: introduced range.

 

Bullfrogs eat just about anything they can fit in their mouth and swallow! The list of prey includes other frogs, fish, turtles, small birds, bats, rodents, insects, crustaceans, and worms. I have personally witnessed one even trying to eat a baby duck!

 

 

They are named for their deep call, which is thought to sound like a bull bellowing.

 


#2. Northern Leopard Frog

  • Lithobates pipiens

species of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 2 to 4.5 inches long.
  • Smooth skin is green, brown, or yellow-green with large dark spots.
  • Lighter-colored raised ridges extend down the length of the back.

 

You can spot these amphibians in the United States near slow-moving bodies of water with lots of vegetation. Northern Leopard Frogs are easy to see in or near ponds, lakes, streams, and marshes. I love how bright green most individuals appear!

Northern Leopard Frog Range Map

northern leopard frog range map

Due to their fairly large size, these amphibians eat various foods, including worms, crickets, flies, small frogs, snakes, and birds. In one study, a bat was even observed being eaten!

 

During the spring breeding season, the males will float in shallow pools emitting a low call thought to sound like snoring. However, the Northern Leopard Frog may also make a high, loud, screaming call if captured or startled.

 

Northern Leopard Frog populations are declining in many areas, and the cause is not exactly known. It’s thought to be a combination of habitat loss, drought, introduced fish, environmental contaminants, and disease.

 


#3. Green Frog

  • Lithobates clamitans

 amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body lengths range from 2 to 4 inches, and the females are typically larger than males.
  • Coloration is normally green or brown with darker mottling or spots on the back.
  • Ridges run down the sides of the back, and they have webbed hind feet.

 

Green Frogs are among the easiest amphibians to find in the United States.

Green Frog Range Map

green frog range map

 

Look for them in permanent bodies of water, including lakes, ponds, swamps, and streams. They spend most of their time near the shoreline but jump into deeper water when approached. They also breed and lay eggs near the shore, typically in areas with aquatic vegetation.

 

The Green Frog produces a single-note call that is relatively easy to identify. Listen for a noise that sounds like a plucked banjo string, often repeated.

 

They use a “sit and wait” approach to hunt, so they are fairly opportunistic. Green Frogs will try to eat almost anything they can fit inside their mouth. The list includes spiders, insects, fish, crayfish, snails, slugs, small snakes, and even other frogs!

 


#4. Spring Peeper

  • Pseudacris crucifer

spring peeper - common amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are small and range from 1 to 1.5 inches long.
  • They’re typically tan or brown, with the females lighter in color.
  • Both males and females usually feature a darker cross or ‘X’ on their back.

 

These tiny amphibians are found across the eastern United States.

 

You’ll typically spot Spring Peepers on the forest floor among the leaves. However, they have large toe pads that they use for climbing trees.

Spring Peeper Range Map

spring peeper range map

You can find them in ponds and small bodies of water, where they breed and lay eggs in the spring. After hatching, the young frogs remain in the tadpole stage for about three months before leaving the water.

 

Spring Peepers get their name from their distinctive spring chorus. They’re thought to sound like baby chickens’ peeps, and they are most often heard in early spring! LISTEN BELOW!

 


#5. Gray Treefrog

  • Dryophytes versicolor

gray tree frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body lengths range from 1.5 to 2 inches.
  • Mottled gray, green, and brown coloring. Look for a whitish spot beneath each eye.
  • Bumpy skin, short snouts, and bright orange on the undersides of their legs.
  • *Gray Treefrogs are essentially identical to Cope’s Gray Treefrogs. The only way to tell the difference is to listen to their breeding calls. You can learn more by visiting this site.*

 

Chameleons aren’t the only animal that can change colors! This incredible amphibian can slowly change colors to camouflage itself and match what it’s sitting on. They can vary from gray to green or brown. It’s common for their back to display a mottled coloring, much like lichen.

 

Gray Treefrogs are ubiquitous throughout their range. You’ll spot them in various wooded habitats, from backyards to forests to swamps. Like most amphibians in the United States, they tend to live close to a water source.

Gray Treefrog Range Map

gray tree frog range map

They stick to the treetops until it’s time to breed. Gray Treefrogs prefer to mate and lay eggs in woodland ponds without fish. They’ll also use swamps and garden water features.

 

Gray Treefrogs are easier to hear than to see.

Listen for a high trill that lasts about 1 second, commonly heard in spring and summer.

 

 


#6. Pickerel Frog

  • Lithobates palustris

pickerel frog - types of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body length ranges from 2 to 4 inches.
  • Dark green-brown coloration with two rows of dark squarish spots running down its back. The underside of the hind legs is a bright yellow.
  • Females are typically darker and larger than males.

 

Like many amphibians in the United States, Pickerel Frogs prefer cool, clear water. You can find them in ponds, rivers, lakes, slow-moving streams, and ditches.

Pickerel Frog Range Map

pickerel frog range map

Pickerel Frogs are one of the few poisonous amphibians in the United States!

 

When attacked, they produce toxic skin irritations that can be fatal to other animals and may cause skin irritation in humans if handled. So, as you can imagine, most predators leave them alone!

 

During the breeding season, the males attract females with a low, snore-like call. Then, the females will attach egg masses to branches in cool water, where the tadpoles will spend 87-95 days before becoming frogs.

 


#7. Western Chorus Frog

  • Pseudacris triseriata

western chorus frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body length up to 1.6 inches long.
  • Smooth skin with color that varies from gray to green or brown.
  • Dark brown or gray stripes run down the back, a dark stripe from the snout through the eye, and a white stripe on the upper lip.
  • Also called the Midland Chorus Frog.

 

In the United States, look for these amphibians in woodland ponds, marshes, swamps, meadows, and grassy pools.

Western Chorus Frog Range Map

Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGSchorus frog range map - boreal, western, upland

For breeding, they try to find bodies of water without fish, including flooded fields, beaver ponds, roadside ditches, marshes, and shallow lakes and ponds. The female attaches small masses of eggs to underwater vegetation.

 

Western Chorus Frogs are secretive and nocturnal, so they can be hard to spot. Your best way to locate one is to use your ears. Listen for a unique call that is rapid and relatively short and sounds a bit like running your finger over the teeth of a comb. PRESS PLAY BELOW.

 

 


#8. Boreal Chorus Frog

  • Pseudacris maculata

boreal chorus frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 1 to 1.5 inches long.
  • Coloration is brown, olive green, or tan, with three dark stripes down the back that are sometimes broken into blotches.
  • Prominent black stripe on each side from nostril, through the eye, and down the sides to the groin.
  • Looks very similar to the Western Chorus Frog. Boreal Chorus Frogs are distinguished by having shorter legs.

 

While the Boreal Chorus Frog is a common amphibian in the United States, they are rarely seen. They’re small and secretive, inhabiting moist meadows and forests near wetlands.

Boreal Chorus Frog Range Map

Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGSchorus frog range map - boreal, western, upland

These amphibians breed in shallow temporary ponds and pools such as flooded fields and roadside ditches. They require waters free of fish; otherwise, predators would eat most of their eggs and tadpoles!

 

Males produce a loud chorus of calls at breeding sites, which are easy to identify.

 

The sound has been compared to someone running a finger over the teeth of a comb (“reeeek“). You’re most likely to hear the calls in the late afternoon or evening.

 


#9. Pacific Treefrog

  • Pseudacris regilla

pacific tree frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults can reach 2 inches long, with the males typically being smaller.
  • Most are green or brown with pale white undersides, but some are reddish, gray, cream, or black.
  • Dark mask across the eyes to the shoulders and uniformly bumpy skin.

 

These amphibians can be found in a wide range of elevations in the United States, ranging from sea level to 10,000 feet (3,050 m)!

 

Pacific Treefrog Range Map

pacific tree frog range map

Look for Pacific Treefrogs in woodlands and meadows. Interestingly, these amphibians spend most of their time on the ground despite being a treefrog. They even hide from predators in underground burrows!

 

Also called the Pacific Chorus Frog, this species can be heard during the spring. Their mating call is a two-part call that sounds like “kreck-ek” or “rib-bit.

 


#10. Wood Frog

  • Lithobates sylvaticus

wood frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult body lengths range from 1.5 to 3.25 inches.
  • Coloration is various shades of brown, gray, red, or green, with females tending to be more brightly colored.
  • Distinct black marking across the eyes, which resembles a mask.

 

As the name suggests, Wood Frogs are found in moist woodland habitats, including forested swamps, ravines, and bogs. They travel widely and visit seasonal pools to breed.

Wood Frog Range Map

wood frog range map

This incredible little amphibian has a wide range across North America. They have adapted to cold climates by being able to freeze over the winter. Their breathing and heartbeat stop and their bodies produce a type of antifreeze that prevents their cells from bursting. In the spring, they thaw and begin feeding again.

 

Wood Frogs are among the first amphibians in the United States to emerge after the snow melts. Listen for a call that sounds a bit like a clucking chicken near vernal pools and other small bodies of water!

 

 


#11. American Green Treefrog

  • Dryophytes cinereus

green tree frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults can grow up to 2.5 inches long and have smooth skin.
  • Yellowish-green to lime green with pale yellow or white undersides.
  • White stripes down their sides sometimes have black borders.

 

Even though they are common in their range, these arboreal amphibians can be hard to find in the United States since they spend most of their lives high in trees. They also can change color based on light and temperature.

American Green Treefrog Range Map

green tree frog range map

American Green Treefrogs are often kept as pets. They are popular because of their attractive appearance, size, and how easy it is to take care of them. For example, they don’t require artificial heating like most amphibians. But being nocturnal, it’s unlikely you will see them moving around much, so they are probably not the most exciting pets!

 

Their breeding call is a repeated, abrupt, nasal “bark” that’s incredibly easy to identify. Therefore, sound is typically the best way to locate these amphibians.

 


#12. Canyon Treefrog

  • Dryophytes arenicolor

canyon tree frog

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 1 to 2 inches in length.
  • Typically brown, gray-brown, tan, or gray-green with darker, irregular blotches on the back. They often match the color of their habitat.
  • They sometimes appear golden in direct sunlight, and the inside of the hind legs is bright yellow.

 

These amphibians are found in rocky areas in the southwestern United States. Despite their name, Canyon Treefrogs don’t live in trees but are mainly found perched on boulders and rock faces near permanent water sources.

Canyon Treefrog Range Map

canyon tree frog range map

During the hottest part of the day and periods of low rainfall, Canyon Frogs will seek shelter in rock crevices. They sometimes cluster together in these areas to help reduce moisture loss. They also have tougher skin on their back than most frog species to help them cope with their hot, dry climate.

 

You may hear the male’s low call during the breeding season, which is sometimes thought to sound like a distant sheep or goat. However, since they are nocturnal, your best bet is to hear one at night.

 


#13. American Toad

  • Anaxyrus americanus 

common amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 2-3 ½ inches.
  • Coloring is usually brown to gray, olive, or brick red. Typically, they have patches of yellow, buff, or other light colors, with dark spots.
  • The American Toad is distinctive for its many warts present over the back and legs.

 

These amphibians are common in the eastern United States.

American Toad Range Map:Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGS

 

American Toads are found in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, prairies, and suburban backyards. They are carnivorous and mainly eat insects, worms, spiders, and slugs.

 

American Toads have a very recognizable call. Listen for a musical trilling noise that can last for 30 seconds.

 

They like to breed in shallow water, and tadpoles have an amazing defense against predators. Incredibly, their skin secretes a toxic chemical so powerful that eating one tadpole can kill a fish! And like their tadpoles, adult American Toads are also toxic to other animals.

 


#14. Western Toad

  • Anaxyrus boreas

types of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 2-5 inches.
  • Coloring can range from yellowish, tan, gray, or green with a pale stripe along the back. The Western Toad also has dark blotches with rust-colored edges and warts.
  • Males have smoother, less blotchy skin than females.

 

As its name suggests, the Western Toad lives in the western part of the continent. It has a wide range of habitats, including desert streams and springs, forests, lakes and rivers, and backyard gardens with pools nearby.

Western Toad Range Map:

 

Unlike most other toads, Western Toads don’t often hop!

 

Instead, they walk, picking up 1 or 2 legs at a time. You can see this unique movement below!

 


#15. Great Plains Toad

  • Anaxyrus cognatus

species of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 2-4 ½ inches.
  • Coloring is pale white to tan or olive with large, dark-colored pairs of blotches down the back. Lighter tan or white belly.
  • A crest on the head forms a “V” shape from the snout, moving outward on the head toward the back.

 

Great Plains Toads are found in temporary shallow pools, quiet streams, marshes, or irrigation ditches. They are most common in grasslands and can be found in desert brush and woodland areas.

Great Plains Toad Range Map:

 

Only a few weeks out of the year are suitable for the Great Plains Toad to feed and reproduce. Amazingly, they spend the rest of the year mostly dormant in underground burrows made by other animals.

 

Symmetrical dark splotches running down its back make this amphibian one of the easier toads to see, but you will probably hear one nearby long before you can spot it. Its call can last more than 50 seconds and is similar to a jackhammer!

 

When large groups of Great Plains Toads call, the sound can be near-deafening!

 


#16. Fowler’s Toad

  • Anaxyrus fowleri

kinds of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 2-3 inches.
  • Coloring ranges from gray to brownish green or olive, with dark splotches on the back with three or more warts. Adults have a pale stripe down their backs.
  • The belly is usually white or yellowish, sometimes with dark spots breaking into smaller flecks.

 

Fowler’s Toads live in a wide range of habitats, including forests, river valleys, farms, and urban and suburban gardens. Like many other amphibians in the United States, they eat various insects and are very good at pest control!

Fowler’s Toad Range Map

 

The mating call of the Fowler’s Toad only lasts about 1-4 seconds. Listen for a nasal “wa-a-a-ah” sound, similar to the call of a Canada Goose.

Interestingly, the Fowler’s Toad mating call attracts both males and females.

The male occasionally tries to mate with another male, only realizing his mistake when he hears the other toad’s warning chirp.

 


#17. Woodhouse’s Toad

  • Anaxyrus woodhousii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 2 ½-4 inches.
  • Coloring ranges from gray to yellowish or olive green.
  • The belly is light tan or buff, with very few dark spots on the chest.

 

Woodhouse’s Toads are adaptable to many environments, including grasslands, deserts, floodplains, and developed areas. Interestingly, individuals that live in suburban areas will wait under street lamps to catch and eat insects attracted to the light.

Woodhouse’s Toad Range Map:

 

The most striking feature of these amphibians is their shape – they are round and stout, with short legs that look too small to support their bodies!

 

Woodhouse’s Toads have a very short call that resembles a distressed sheep’s bleat.

 


#18. Eastern Spadefoot

  • Scaphiopus holbrookii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 1 ¾ – 2 ¼ inches.
  • The coloring is brown to almost black, with two yellowish lines running down the back from the eyes.
  • Spade is sickle-shaped and three times as long as it is wide.

 

Although they’re related to toads, spadefoots are a separate class of amphibians. Their name refers to a specialized “spade” on their leg that helps them burrow underground!

Eastern Spadefoot Range Map:

It’s rare to spot these amphibians in the United States because they spend so much time underground. In fact, they can go years without a breeding season, preferring to come out only after a period of extended rain and breed explosively for a short time.

 

Male Eastern Spadefoots call to attract females with a short grunting noise during the breeding season. Interestingly, males float in bodies of water while they call, instead of waiting on land and following a female into the water.

 


#19. Colorado River Toad

  • Incilius alvarius 

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult length is 4-7 ½ inches; the Colorado River Toad is the largest toad native to North America.
  • Very large glands on either side of the head produce its powerful venom.
  • Coloring is dark brown or olive to gray, with smooth skin and a few warts on the hind legs.

 

The Colorado River Toad has a reputation as the “Psychedelic Toad”!

 

Its venom is illegally harvested and used as a hallucinogenic drug, and it is even classified as a controlled substance. It is also dangerous to most animals, and large dogs who accidentally eat them have been known to be paralyzed or even die from the poison.

Colorado River Toad Range Map:

 

Though not widespread, this amphibian has a large population in the southwest United States.

 

The Colorado River Toad’s call lasts under a second and has been compared to the whistle of a ferryboat.

 

In the United States, laws and regulations have been put in place to prevent the use of the Colorado River Toad’s venom as a drug. For example, it can’t be moved across state lines, and if a person is found in possession of one with the intent to use its venom as a drug, they can be arrested or fined.

 


#20. Eastern Newt

  • Notophthalmus viridescens

eastern newt - common amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Larvae are aquatic and have smooth, olive green skin, narrow, fin-like tails, and feathery gills.
  • Juveniles are terrestrial and have rough, orangish-red skin with darker spots outlined in black.
  • Adults have slimy, dull olive-green skin, dull yellow undersides, darker black-rimmed spots, and a blade-like tail.

 

Eastern Newts have the most complicated life cycle of any amphibian in the United States!

 

When they’re first hatched, they spend all of their time in the water. This larval stage lasts for two to five months. After that, they metamorphose into juvenile Eastern Newts.

 

They live in terrestrial forest habitats for two to seven years during their juvenile stage. Even though they generally remain hidden under moist leaf litter and debris, you may see them moving about on rainy days and nights, foraging insects, worms, and spiders. This is the stage of life you’re most likely to see an Eastern Newt. If you spot one, be careful – they have glands that secrete a potent neurotoxin when they’re threatened.

 

 

Finally, Eastern Newts will migrate back to a water source and metamorphose into aquatic adults, where they eat small amphibians, fish, and worms. They can live up to 15 years and spend the rest of their lives in this aquatic form.

 


#21. Spotted Salamander

  • Ambystoma maculatum

types of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults are 5.9 to 9.8 inches long with wide snouts. They are typically black but may also be bluish-black, dark grey, dark green, or dark brown.
  • They have two uneven rows of spots down their back, from just behind their eyes to the tip of their tail. Spots on the head are orange and fade to yellow further down the body and tail.

 

The Spotted Salamander is found primarily in hardwood forests with vernal pools, temporary ponds created by spring rain. Like many small amphibians in the United States, they require vernal pools for breeding because the fish in permanent lakes and ponds would eat all their eggs and larvae.

 

These amphibians are fossorial, meaning they spend most of their time underground. Spotted Salamanders are typically only seen above ground just after heavy rain, so you’ll need to get a little muddy to find one! They go dormant underground during the winter months and don’t come out until the breeding season between March and May.

 


#22. Eastern Tiger Salamander

  • Ambystoma tigrinum

species of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 6 to 8 inches in length.
  • Their coloring is dark gray, brown, or black with brownish-yellow to greenish-yellow markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
  • This species has a thick body and neck, short snout, strong legs, and a lengthy tail.

 

These amphibians are one of the largest salamanders in the United States.

 

Eastern Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground in woods, grasslands, or marshes. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights.

 

Their diet is primarily made up of insects, worms, slugs, and frogs. However, if there’s a prey shortage, they become much less picky. They’ve been observed feeding on baby snakes, newborn mice, and small salamanders of other species. They will even cannibalize their own young in times of low food supply!

.

Although Eastern and Western Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Secondly, Eastern Tiger Salamanders are much larger and have a black patch on their snout.

 


#23. Western Tiger Salamander

  • Ambystoma mavortium

kinds of amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 3 to 6.5 inches in length.
  • Their coloring is greenish-yellow with black markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
  • This species has a thick body and neck and a short snout.

 

Western Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground. You’re most likely to see these amphibians moving about and foraging on rainy nights. Their favorite hiding spots are burrows, which they can make themselves or borrow from other animals.

Interestingly, Western Tiger Salamanders have four distinct morphs as adults. Scientists classify them by whether they are aquatic or terrestrial and what they eat. For example, a typical Western Tiger Salamander eats insects and frogs, breathes above water, and spends time on land.

 

However, there is a terrestrial morph that cannibalizes other Western Tiger Salamanders! In addition, there are cannibalistic and non-cannibalistic AQUATIC morphs that have gills and breathe underwater.

The aquatic individuals are called paedomorphs, and while they are mature and able to reproduce normally, they retain a lot of the features of larval Western Tiger Salamanders. The most obvious feature is their frilly, long gills!

 


#24. Common Mudpuppy

  • Necturus maculosus

 amphibians in the united states

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 8 to 19 inches in length.
  • This species is rusty brown to gray or black with scattered bluish-black or black spots.
  • The large, bushy, red, or maroon external gills behind the flattened head make this species easy to identify.

 

Common Mudpuppies are among the most well-known amphibians in the United States.

 

These LARGE salamanders can be found in nearly any body of water, including lakes, reservoirs, ditches, and rivers. They are secretive and require habitats with lots of cover, such as boulder piles, submerged logs, tree roots, or vegetation.

 

 

Common Mudpuppies are nocturnal and spend their days hiding under rocks. They’re active at night and hunt by walking along the lake or river bottom, but they can also swim. These opportunistic feeders eat whatever aquatic organisms they can catch, including insect larvae, small fish, fish eggs, aquatic worms, snails, and even carrion.

 

In the spring, when water temperatures don’t fluctuate as much, these amphibians spend time in shallow water. However, they have been reported in water as deep as 100 feet during the summer and winter!

 


#25. Red-backed Salamander

  • Plethodon cinereus

types of salamanders in the united states

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 2 to 5 inches in length.
  • Adults can occur in two color phases: the “lead-back” is consistent gray or black, and the “red-back” has an orange to red stripe down the back and tail.

 

Unlike most other amphibians in the United States, Red-Backed Salamanders don’t have lungs OR gills! Instead, they “breathe” with their thin skin, absorbing oxygen through moisture. This unique trait means they must stay moist to survive.

 

Red-backed Salamanders are typically found beneath leaf litter, logs, bark, rocks, or burrows in deciduous forests. They have a low tolerance for dry weather, and typically you’ll only see them during or after rainfall. In the winter, they hibernate underground.

 

The different phases are also believed to have different methods of predator evasion. For example, the “lead-back” phase salamanders tend to run from predators, while the “red-back” phase will freeze. Both phases of the Red-backed Salamander may also drop all or part of their tail to escape a predator. Eventually, the tail will grow back but is usually duller in color.

 


#26. Four-Toed Salamander

  • Hemidactylium scutatum

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults grow up to 3.9 inches in length.
  • Orangish-brown to reddish-brown coloring with a brighter tail, grayish flanks, and white underside with small black spots.
  • They have an elongated body and limbs, short snout, prominent eyes, and four toes on their hind feet.

 

Adult Four-Toed Salamanders are typically found in hardwood forests near bogs, floodplains, or swamps. They’re almost always found near sphagnum moss, and you’ll want to look under the leaf litter, logs, rocks, or other debris to find them.

 

As adults, these amphibians primarily feed on small invertebrates such as spiders, worms, and insects. Predators like larger salamanders, snakes, and birds of prey will hunt Four-Toed Salamanders while they forage. If threatened, they may play dead or drop their tails, giving them a chance to escape predators.

 

 

These amphibians are relatively uncommon in the United States due to their specialized habitat. So if you see one in the wild, consider yourself lucky!

 


#27. Marbled Salamander

  • Ambystoma opacum

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 3.5 to 4.25 inches in length.
  • Their coloring is dark brown or black. Males have white crossbands while females have silver or gray.
  • Stout-bodied and chubby, females tend to be larger than males.

 

Marbled Salamanders occupy various damp habitats, from low-lying floodplains to moist, wooded hillsides. However, they spend most of their time underground or beneath rocks, logs, leaf litter, or other debris, so it’s unusual to find one unless you’ve disturbed its hiding place!

 

These amphibians are considered a keystone species in the United States, an animal whose disappearance would completely change its ecosystem.

 

For example, let’s look at the relationship between Marbled and Spotted Salamanders:

Marbled Salamanders eat Spotted Salamander larvae, which eat zooplankton. Therefore, if Marbled Salamanders were suddenly removed from this food chain, the Spotted Salamander population would explode.

With so many more Spotted Salamanders eating zooplankton, eventually, the zooplankton would become extinct in that area. Then, once their food source disappeared, Spotted Salamanders would also disappear.

 


#28. Hellbender

  • Cryptobranchus alleganiensis

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults have a large, flattened body up to 29 inches long with keeled tails, beady eyes, and slimy skin.
  • They have thick skin folds down their sides, short legs with four toes on the front legs and five on the back, and adults have gill slits while juveniles have true gills.
  • This species is blotchy red or red-brown with a pale buff underside.

 

The Hellbender is the largest amphibian in the United States!

 

The Hellbender’s large, flattened body allows it to stay in place in the shallow, swift streams where it spends most of its life. Hellbenders are dependent on the cool temperatures and highly oxygenated water that the moving current provides. Look for them in river tributaries and runoff streams with a strong current.

 

Some studies suggest that Hellbenders may live up to 50 years in the wild. This long life can be attributed to their excellent camouflage. They’re practically impossible to see, even when you’re looking directly at them!

 

Unfortunately, these amphibians have seen dramatic population declines despite an incredible lifespan. Damming, pollution, disease, and over-harvesting all contribute to its decline. As a result, they are listed as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red List.

 


#29. Greater Siren

  • Siren lacertina

Identifying Characteristics

  • Adults range from 7 to 38 inches in length.
  • Coloring varies with range, but it is typically olive or gray with yellow or green dots on the sides, and younger sirens may have a light stripe down their sides which fades with age.
  • They lack hind limbs and eyelids and have external gills and reduced fore-limbs.

 

Unlike most amphibians in the United States, Greater Sirens lack a terrestrial stage and spend their entire lives in aquatic environments. Consequently, they can be found in heavily vegetated swamps, ponds, ditches, streams, and lakes near coastal areas. Adults spend most of their time among plant material, sunken logs, or other debris.

 

As Greater Sirens often occupy habitats with low visibility, they don’t rely on sight to locate prey. Instead, they have a Jacobson’s organ (a chemical receptor organ also found in snakes), which allows them to smell prey and a lateral line organ that allows them to sense vibrations in the water. They may also be able to sense disturbances in electrical fields.

When threatened, Greater Sirens may quickly flee using their powerful tails or give off a series of warning sounds. They make yelps, hissing sounds, and croaks similar to the sounds of young ducks. Greater Sirens can also deliver a painful bite.

 


What types of amphibians in the United States have you seen?

 

Let us know in the comments!

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