What types of animals can you see in Guinea Bissau?
Guinea Bissau is home to some of the most incredible wildlife on the planet. The amount of diversity is truly incredible. 🙂
But because of the sheer number of different species, there was no way I could include every animal living in Guinea Bissau.
So, here is what I did to make this list more manageable:
The article below focuses mostly on the most common and unique MAMMALS found in Guinea Bissau.
If you were hoping to learn about something else, like reptiles, birds, or spiders, I have created separate ID guides for these categories of animals.
Please click the links below to view pages dedicated to these species in Guinea Bissau:
12 Incredible ANIMALS IN Guinea Bissau:
#1. Honey Badger
- Mellivora capensis
- Adults are 55–77 cm (22–30 in) long.
- They have stocky bodies, large heads, small eyes, strong, wide forefeet, small hind feet with short claws, muscular necks and shoulders, and thick, loose skin.
- Their color varies with subspecies, but generally, their lower half is black, and they have an upper mantle of gray or bright white.
Honey Badgers are one of the toughest animals in Guinea Bissau!
They have a reputation for living anywhere, eating anything, and surviving no matter what.
Their diet is as varied as their habitat. Honey Badgers are opportunistic foragers whose menu changes with the season and prey availability. They frequently prey on snakes, birds, eggs, frogs, and small rodents. As their name suggests, they’re also known for raiding honey bee hives to eat the larvae and honey inside.
Honey Badgers are known for their aggressive nature. Males will ferociously defend their territory and mate from other males. Naturalists sometimes refer to older adult males as “scarbacks” because they usually have a noticeable patch of scars on their backs from conflicts.
The video below is one of my favorites and shows how TOUGH Honey Badgers are! Seriously, you have to watch until the end.
#2. African Buffalo
- Syncerus caffer
- They are heavy, cow-like animals that are typically dark gray or black.
- Both sexes have heavy, ridged horns that go straight out from the head and curve downward, then up.
African Buffalo are one of the most formidable animals in Guinea Bissau!
They are widely regarded as dangerous and have few natural predators other than humans. Lions are the only carnivores that regularly hunt adults, but it is certainly not easy. Cheetahs, hyenas, leopards, and African wild dogs will only go after calves.
Buffalo are known to defend themselves courageously against lions and will often fight off multiple individuals, chasing them until they jump into a tree.
These large mammals are some of the most successful grazing wildlife found in Guinea Bissau. They live in a wide range of habitats so long as there is plenty of access to water and grass. You may spot them in semi-arid bushlands, savannas, lowland rainforests, grasslands, montane forests, and coastal savannas.
This is one of my favorite videos to watch, and it shows the toughness of the African Buffalo. You must watch it to the end!
The African Buffalo uses a safety-in-numbers approach to avoid predation, sometimes congregating in herds of thousands of animals. These large herds are critical to protecting young calves. Calves give low, mournful bellows if threatened, and their herd will come running to defend them! (As you can see in the video above)
- Phacochoerus africanus
- Warthogs have disproportionately large heads with thick protective pads (“warts”) on the sides of their heads, two upper tusks that protrude from their snout, and sharp lower tusks.
- Sparse bristles cover their body, with manes of longer bristles down the top of their head and spine.
- A tuft of long hairs at the end of their tail.
Warthogs live in various habitats in Guinea Bissau, including wooded savannas, grass steppes, and semideserts. But their lack of body fat and fur means they need certain landscape features to help them regulate their body temperatures.
For example, they use wet areas called “wallows” to cool off in the mud when the temperature is hot. In cool temperatures, they go inside burrows to stay warm. They fill these holes with grass and use them as shelter and insulation from the hot sun and cold temperatures.
Warthogs have some interesting feeding adaptations. They often kneel on their calloused, padded front knees when feeding on grass. They also use their strong, blunt snouts and tusks to dig up and eat tubers, bulbs, and roots.
#4. Straw-coloured Fruit Bat
- Eidolon helvum
- Wingspans up to 30 inches (76 cm).
- They have yellowish-brown necks and backs and tawny olive or brownish undersides.
- Large, narrow wings, long, pointed faces, large eyes, and widespread ears.
Straw-colored Fruit Bats are the second largest African species of fruit bat. They are often called “flying foxes” for their large size, dog-like faces, widespread ears, and big eyes.
These big bats are social animals in Guinea Bissau that live in large colonies of 100,000 to 10,000,000 individuals! While they are often active during the day, they mostly feed at night, leaving the colony in small groups to search for food in nearby forests.
Straw-colored Fruit Bat Range Map
Unlike many of the smaller insectivorous bat species you may be familiar with, Straw-colored Fruit Bats are herbivores. When they find fruit, Straw-colored Fruit Bats grab it using their large thumbs and hold it to eat.
Unlike most bats, Straw-colored Fruits Bats don’t use echolocation to navigate the skies. They rely upon their keen sense of smell and eyesight.
#5. Red River Hog
- Potamochoerus porcus
- Most populations in Africa are predominantly reddish, with a white stripe down their back, white facial markings, and black legs.
- Both sexes have tusks, long white whiskers, and ear tufts, but males have well-developed warts on their snouts.
These hogs are one of the most colorful mammals in Guinea Bissau!
They get their name, Red River Hogs, from their beautiful coloration and preference for wallowing in and around rivers and streams. They prefer areas with thick vegetation to hide in and are rarely spotted far from the rainforest.
Red River Hog Range Map
They typically forage at night, and their excellent sense of smell allows them to locate food. Red River Hogs are also smart! Researchers have also observed these clever animals following groups of Chimpanzees to eat the fruit they drop from trees.
Red River Hogs are social creatures that usually live in groups called “sounders.” These groups typically consist of one male and 2 to 15 females and their young.
#6. White-bellied Pangolin
- Phataginus tricuspis
- They have small, pointed heads, thick eyelids, long tongues, large curved claws, and prehensile tails.
- Except for their faces, undersides, and insides of their legs, they are covered in three-cusped keratin scales ranging from dark brown to russet to brownish-yellow.
White-bellied Pangolins are an incredibly interesting animal in Guinea Bissau!
These unusual-looking little creatures live in tropical, moist, lowland forests. They feed exclusively on ants, ant eggs, termites, and termite eggs.
Their unique appearance comes from their many special adaptations.
- Pangolins are covered in hard scales made of keratin, the same material as our fingernails.
- When threatened, Pangolins roll into a ball so that only this hard, scaly surface is exposed.
- Additionally, White-bellied Pangolins can release a foul, skunky secretion from their anal glands to ward off attackers.
White-bellied Pangolin Range Map
Lastly, pangolins have prehensile tails, which help them climb trees and walk on their hind feet. When they walk on all fours, they actually walk on the knuckles of their front feet to avoid wearing down their sharp claws.
Sadly, White-bellied Pangolins are overhunted for food and traditional medicine in many areas. Today, they are listed as endangered.
#7. Red-legged Sun Squirrel
- Heliosciurus rufobrachium
- Large eyes, small rounded ears, and tails that comprise about half their total length.
- Their bodies are dark brown to gray with blackish tails and reddish legs and muzzles.
Red-legged Sun Squirrels are typically found in Guinea Bissau in areas with large trees, including plantations, primary and secondary forests, and patches of trees in savannas and gardens.
These small animals primarily eat fruit and seeds but also feed on other vegetation and insects. They will probe into crevices for insects and larvae and may even feed on birds and their eggs if any opportunity arises.
Usually, Red-legged Sun Squirrels are found alone or in pairs. But they are occasionally seen resting with other squirrels and grooming each other.
#8. Northern Bushbuck
- Tragelaphus scriptus
- Adults may be reddish, yellow-brown, or light brown with various white spots and stripes, which vary over their range.
- Adult males have parallel horns which spiral once and are fairly straight.
These animals are highly adaptable in Guinea Bissau.
Northern Bushbucks prefer areas with plenty of wooded cover. They spend much of their time on forest edges and in brushy areas near rivers and streams. At night, they often head to nearby open spaces to feed. Northern Bushbucks are very capable swimmers and will easily cross rivers.
These small antelopes are solitary but not territorial, so sometimes, many animals will live within the same habitat even though they don’t form traditional herds. They’re widespread and plentiful within their range. In fact, unlike many antelopes, they can thrive around humans, and in some areas, they are considered a pest.
#9. Striped Ground Squirrel
- Euxerus erythropus
Euxerus erythropus. (2022, November 11). In Wikipedia.
- Their fur is typically similar to the soil color in their area and may range from brownish to reddish gray to yellowish gray.
- Look for a white or buff stripe down each side from shoulders to hindquarters, small ears, long, slightly curved claws, and a flattened, darker tail.
As the name suggests, Stiped Ground Squirrels DO NOT climb trees. Their claws are well-suited to digging and running across the ground but don’t allow them to climb well.
Female Striped Ground Squirrels tend to be highly social and often live in groups of 6 to 10. The males are mostly solitary but come together to mate with multiple females several times per year.
Females in the same group work together to build special burrows for their young that are lined with soft, dried grasses. These burrows typically have multiple emergency exits to help escape from predators. Life is tough for baby squirrels, as approximately 70% of them are lost!
#10. Gambian Sun Squirrel
- Heliosciurus gambianus
Gambian Sun Squirrels are arboreal animals in Guinea Bissau that spend most of their time in the upper branches of trees in dense woodland savannas. They are also found along wooded waterways and may be expanding their range into rainforest areas.
These squirrels are highly opportunistic when it comes to what’s for dinner. They will feed on nearly anything they can, including insects, seeds, fruit, acacia pods, lizards, geckos, young birds, small mammals, and palm nuts. Gnawing on tough, fibrous foods like palm nut husks helps wear down their continually growing incisors.
Gambian Sun Squirrels are often solitary, and little is known about their reproduction. However, small families of parents and young are observed together. The parents build lined nests, usually in tree cavities. They often try to hide the nest by covering the entrance with loose twigs and leaves.
#11. Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat
- Epomophorus gambianus
- Adults have an average wingspan of 20 inches (50 cm).
- They have vestigial tails, widespread ears, and big, pendulous lips, and males have air sacs on their necks and pouches on their shoulders containing patches of white fur.
- They may be grayish-brown, russet, or tawny, with a white patch at the base of each ear.
Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bats are a species of megabat in Guinea Bissau with dog-like faces. Unlike other bats that are secretive, these big fellows regularly roost in bright, low areas on the edges of forests or even under the roof of thatched sheds, seemingly undisturbed by the presence of people.
Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat Range Map
As their name suggests, their preferred food is fruit, and you’ll see them anywhere near ripe figs, mangos, guavas, or bananas. They’ll also feed on the nectar of certain flowers, and some flowering trees depend on them for pollination. Interestingly, these bats don’t use echolocation, instead relying on their keen sense of smell to locate ripening fruit and flowers.
For such small mammals, these big bats have long lifespans and may live up to 21 years in the wild and 28 years in captivity.
#12. Rock Hyrax
- Procavia capensis
Also called Dassie, Cape hyrax, Rock Rabbit, and Coney.
- Short snouts, cleft upper lips, stout legs, short ears, and rubber-like soles on their feet.
- They are brownish-gray with creamy undersides, long black whiskers, and a black patch of hair on their back.
These small animals may look like rodents in Guinea Bissau, but their closest living relatives are actually elephants and manatees! As their name suggests, they live in rocky, scrub-covered areas.
Rock Hyrax have several adaptions that allow them to move about skillfully on steep, rocky surfaces. First, Rock Hyrax feet soles are rubber-like and kept moist by a glandular secretion. And second, their feet also have a depression in the center that acts a bit like a suction cup.
Rock Hyrax Range Map
Rock Hyraxes usually live in colonies called “kopjes,” ranging from 5 to 60 individuals. Usually, these groups are made of a male, several females, and their young.
Interestingly, Rock Hyrax colonies usually urinate and defecate in a common restroom. This habit causes a build-up of calcium carbonate from the urine, turning the cliffs where they live white. In the past, African tribes and Europeans collected the calcium carbonate crystals for medicine to treat epilepsy, hysteria, and other injuries and ailments.
Do you want to learn about MORE animals in Guinea Bissau?
Check out these ID Guides. Each one is specific to wildlife in Guinea Bissau!
Which of these animals in Guinea Bissau is your favorite?
Leave a comment below! I’d especially like to know if you have visited Guinea Bissau before and what you saw.