7 Types of Blackbirds in Pennsylvania! (ID Guide)

What kinds of blackbirds can you find in Pennsylvania?

Common Blackbirds in Pennsylvania

 

Blackbirds are incredibly abundant in Pennsylvania. But while they are common, some of these species get a bad reputation because of their aggressive personalities and tendency to “bully” smaller songbirds at bird feeders (cough… European Starlings… cough).

 

The term “blackbird” is a bit wide-ranging. For the sake of this article, I only included species in the Icteridae family (except for #2), which consists of all New World Blackbirds, grackles, cowbirds, and even orioles! I think you will find that the more you learn about the below birds, the more you can appreciate them and their natural behavior.

 

Below you will learn about 7 types of blackbirds in Pennsylvania!

 

If you’re lucky, you may be able to see blackbirds at my bird feeding station right now! I have a LIVE high-definition camera watching my feeders 24/7. 🙂

 

For each species, I provide some fun facts along with how to identify them by sight OR sound. Make sure to pay attention to the range maps to see which blackbirds live near you!

  • The range maps below were generously shared with permission from The Birds of The World, published by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. I use their site OFTEN to learn new information about birds!

 

To learn more about other birds near you, check out these guides!

 

The 7 Species of Blackbirds That Live in Pennsylvania:

 


#1. Red-winged Blackbird

  • Agelaius phoeniceus

Types of Blackbirds found in Pennsylvania

 

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Males are all black, except for a bright red and yellow patch on their shoulders.
  • Females are brown and heavily streaked. There is a bit of yellow around their bill.
  • Both sexes have a conical bill and are commonly seen sitting on cattails or perched high in a tree overlooking their territory.

 

Red-winged Blackbird Range Map

red winged blackbird range map

 

During the breeding season, these blackbirds are almost exclusively found in marshes and other wet areas. Females build nests in between dense grass-like vegetation, such as cattails, sedges, and bulrushes. Males aggressively defend the nest against intruders, and I have even been attacked by Red-winged Blackbirds while walking near the swamp in my backyard!

 

When it’s the nonbreeding season, Red-winged Blackbirds spend much of their time in grasslands, farm fields, and pastures looking for weedy seeds to eat. It’s common for them to be found in large flocks that feature various other blackbird species, such as grackles, cowbirds, and starlings.

 

It’s possible to see these blackbirds in Pennsylvania at your feeders!

WATCH a male and female Red-winged Blackbird on my feeders above!

 

To attract them, try offering a combination of grains, such as millet and cracked corn, along with sunflower seeds.

 

Red-winged Blackbirds are easy to identify by their sounds!

Listen to their common songs and calls by pressing PLAY above!

 

If you visit a wetland or marsh in spring, you are almost guaranteed to hear males singing and displaying, trying to attract a mate. Listen for a rich, musical song, which lasts about one second and sounds like “conk-la-ree!

 

And at any time of year, you can hear males or females make a “check” call. This sound is used for many purposes, such as when flying, feeding, or defending their territory.

 


#2. European Starling

  • Sturnus vulgaris – This is the only species on this list that isn’t in the Icteridae family.

Blackbird species that live in Pennsylvania

 

Identifying Characteristics:

  • A common blackbird in Pennsylvania, they are about the size of an American Robin. Their plumage is black and appears to be shiny.
  • Short tail with a long slender beak.
  • Breeding adults are darker black and have a green-purple tint. In winter, starlings lose their glossiness, their beaks become darker, and they develop white spots over their bodies.

 

European Starlings are incredibly common in Pennsylvania!

 

European Starling Range Map

starling range map

 

But, did you know these birds are an invasive species and aren’t even supposed to be here?

 

Back in 1890, one hundred starlings were brought over from Europe and released in New York City’s Central Park. The man responsible (Eugene Schieffelin) had a mission to introduce all of the birds mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays in North America.

 

The rest is history as starlings easily conquered the continent, along the way out-competing many of our beautiful native birds. Their ability to adapt to human development and eat almost anything is uncanny to almost no other species.

 

Common Blackbird species in Pennsylvania

When starlings visit in small numbers, they are fun to watch and have beautiful plumage. Unfortunately, these aggressive birds can ruin a party quickly when they visit in massive flocks, chasing away all of the other birds while eating your expensive bird food. To keep these blackbirds away from your bird feeders, you will need to take extreme action and implement some proven strategies.

 

Starlings are impressive vocalists!

Press PLAY above to hear their common songs and calls!

 

Listen for a mix of musical, squeaky, rasping notes. These blackbirds are also known to imitate other birds.

 

Here’s something amazing about European Starlings:

 

It’s the magical way they travel in flocks, called murmurations.

See the video above to watch an incredible display!

It’s absolutely mesmerizing. 🙂

 


#3. Brown-headed Cowbird

  • Molothrus after

brown headed cowbird - types of blackbirds in Pennsylvania

Identifying Characteristics:
  • Look for a stocky, chunky blackbird with a thick, conical bill.
  • Males have completely black bodies with a brown head (hence the name). In poor light, it can be hard to tell that the head is actually brown.
  • Females are a plain brown color. There is slight streaking on the belly and a black eye.

 

Brown-headed Cowbird Range Map

brown headed cowbird range map

In Pennsylvania, these blackbirds are naturally found in grasslands, brushy thickets, prairies, and woodland edges. But they have greatly expanded their range due to human development, and they have adapted well to residential areas, pastures, orchards, and cemeteries.

 

Cowbirds have a truly interesting way of reproducing. Instead of spending energy building nests and raising their young, they let other birds do it for them! Females deposit their eggs INSIDE the nests of other species, which means the “chosen” bird does all the hard work.

 

species of blackbirds in Pennsylvania

Brown-headed Cowbirds are considered “brood parasites.”

 

Interestingly, over 220 species have been identified as having hosted eggs, from small kinglets to large meadowlarks. The other birds typically don’t realize the deception and raise the baby cowbird to adulthood at the expense of their own hatchlings!

The best way to describe the song of a Brown-headed Cowbird is a gurgling, liquid sounding “glug glug glee.” (Press PLAY above to hear their common songs and calls!)

 

Lastly, here is a question for you to ponder:

How does a Brown-headed Cowbird know it’s one? It’s interesting to think about since they aren’t raised by one of their own species. But after they leave the nest, they never spend time again with whatever type of bird their host mother was!

 


#4. Common Grackle

  • Quiscalus quiscula

common grackle

Identifying Characteristics:
  • Lanky, large blackbirds that have a long tail and long bill that curves slightly downward. Loud birds that gather in big flocks high in trees.
  • Males are black overall but have an iridescent blue head and bronze body when seen in the right light.
  • Females look similar, except they are slightly less glossy than males.

 

Common Grackle Range Map

common grackle range map

 

Common Grackles are one of the most resourceful blackbirds you will find in Pennsylvania.

 

Their favorite foods are grains, such as corn and rice, and they are known to gather in enormous flocks in farm fields growing these crops. In addition, they also eat a wide variety of seeds, acorns, fruits, insects, spiders, frogs, fish, mice, other birds, and even garbage!

 

Common Grackles are common visitors to bird feeders!

 

Watch my feeding station get taken over by Common Grackles!

 

These large, aggressive birds can become a bit of a nuisance when they arrive in large flocks as they scare away smaller songbirds. Unfortunately, due to their athletic ability and willingness to eat most foods, they are one of the harder creatures to prevent at backyard feeding stations.

 

To identify them by sound, listen for a song that is compared to a rusty gate (“readle-ree”), often accompanied by whistles, squeaks, and groans. (Press PLAY above to hear their common songs and calls!)

 


#5. Baltimore Oriole

  • Icterus galbula

baltimore oriole

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Male birds are a stunning combination of orange and black with white wing bars.
  • Females are beautiful in their own way, featuring duller colors than the males while lacking a black hood and back.

 

When you think about blackbirds in Pennsylvania, you probably don’t think about Baltimore Orioles! But it’s true, as these stunning birds are members of the Icteridae family.

 

Baltimore Oriole Range Map

baltimore oriole range map

 

These blackbirds spend most of their time at the tops of deciduous trees, fluttering around, building beautiful woven nests, and looking for food.

 

They are most often found in open woodlands, riverbanks, and on the edges of swamps and forests. Even though they enjoy trees, they normally aren’t seen in deep, dark forests.

 

Baltimore Orioles LOVE eating ripe fruit and nectar!

Baltimore Orioles in MY Backyard!

 

These two sugary foods provide lots of energy, while insects give them the nutrition they need. Luckily, these birds are relatively easy to attract to your bird feeders, as long as you use the foods they enjoy eating.

 

Press PLAY above to hear a Baltimore Oriole singing!

 

Baltimore Orioles are often heard before being seen since they live so high up in trees. Listen for males to make a flutelike whistling noise while defending their breeding territory. Females also sing, but it’s shorter and used to communicate with their mates.

 


#6. Orchard Oriole

  • Icterus spurius

orchard oriole

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Male Orchard Orioles are a darker orange than Baltimore Orioles. Their plumage is best described as rust-colored.
  • Females are greenish-yellow, with white wing bars on black wings.

 

These vibrant blackbirds are common in Pennsylvania during summer.

 

Orchard Oriole Range Map

orchard oriole range map

 

But these shy birds are not often seen because they spend most of their time at the tops of trees. Preferred habitat includes the edges of rivers, swamps, lakeshores, open woodlands, farms, and scrublands. In winter, they migrate south to Central and South America.

 

While many oriole species regularly visit bird feeders, Orchard Orioles are much harder to attract to them.

 

You are probably more likely to see these blackbirds in your backyard searching for insects in shrubby vegetation or eating mulberries from a tree. But if you’re lucky, you may see them at your feeders eating sunflower seeds or orange slices, drinking sugar water from a nectar feeder, or sipping a bit of grape jelly.

Press PLAY above to hear an Orchard Oriole singing!

 

An Orchard Oriole’s song is similar to an American Robin, except it’s more varied. Listen for a series of loud whistles that lasts 3-4 seconds, which is used to attract mates.

 


#7. Rusty Blackbird

  • Euphagus carolinus

 

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Medium-sized blackbirds with slightly curved, slender bills.
  • Breeding males are entirely glossy black. Non-breeding males are a duller black but with rusty-brown edging on their plumage.
  • Females appear rusty colored or brown. Look for a pale eyebrow that contrasts against the black feathers around their eye.

 

Rusty Blackbirds pose a concerning mystery to scientists.

 

In Pennsylvania, they have declined dramatically over the past 40 years, and no one knows why!

 

Rusty Blackbird Range Map

 

The problem with studying these blackbirds is that they breed in Canada’s far northern boreal forests, where not many people are around to observe their behavior.

 

Their preferred habitats are wet forests, marshes, pond edges, and swamps. Many of these areas have been drained and converted to agricultural uses, which may play a part in the loss of Rusty Blackbirds.

 

It’s also thought that the severe hunting of beavers over the past century has eliminated many smaller ponds, which is also another natural home used by these blackbirds.

If you are lucky enough to be around a Rusty Blackbird, listen for a creaky song (“koo-a-lee-eek“) that is a few notes long.

 


Do you need additional help identifying blackbirds?

Here are a few books and resources you can purchase that will assist!

 


Which of these blackbirds have you seen before in Pennsylvania?

 

Leave a comment below!

 

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