17 Most Common SPIDERS in New Mexico! (ID Guide)

What kinds of spiders can you find in New Mexico?

Types of spiders in New Mexico

Many people are terrified of spiders and find them extremely creepy. This is unfortunate because they are incredibly interesting creatures and crucial to our environment! Luckily, most spiders are harmless, and they control the insect population.

Today, you will learn about the most common spiders that live in New Mexico.

Before we begin, note that the list below is just a fraction of the overall number of spiders found in New Mexico. Because of the sheer number of these arachnids, it would be impossible to cover them all. With that being said, I did my best to develop a list of COMMON spiders that are often seen and easily identified.

17 Spiders in New Mexico:


#1. Wolf spiders

  • Lycosidae

Types of spiders in New Mexico

Wolf spiders are one of the most recognizable spiders in New Mexico!

They are found everywhere and in almost any habitat. I know that I see them often when flipping over rocks or logs. Unfortunately, there are so many individual species of wolf spiders that it would be impossible to list them here, especially since most look very similar.

Wolf Spider Range Map

wolf spider range map

Interestingly, wolf spiders do not make webs to catch their prey. Instead, they wait for an insect to walk by and then chase it down! Likewise, some species will make a burrow and then wait inside for dinner to walk by.

When it comes to arachnids, wolf spiders have incredible eyesight. They also have retroreflective tissue in their eyes, which produces a glow if you flash light at their faces.

Wolf spiders will bite if provoked, but their venom is not dangerous to humans. Bite symptoms are minimal and may cause itching, swelling, and mild pain.

 


#2. Cellar Spider

  • Pholcidae

Types of spiders in New Mexico

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Cephalothorax (head) and abdomen are different shades of brown.
  • Less than a 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) body, 2-inch (51 mm) long legs, and the body is the shape of a peanut.
  • Some species have 8 eyes, while others only have 6 eyes.

You know that spider that is always in the corners of your basement?

Well, it’s most likely a Cellar Spider! These long, thin, and delicate arachnids are commonly found in New Mexico in homes and buildings. Whenever I clean my basement with a vacuum, a few of these spiders always seem to get sucked inside.

Cellar Spider Range Map

cellar spider range map

Cellar Spiders do something exciting when their web is disturbed by touch or has entangled large prey. They start vibrating rapidly, which has led to them sometimes being called “vibrating spiders.” They do this behavior to hide from predators or increase the chance of catching an insect that brushed up against their web.

Cellar Spiders are beneficial to have around because they have been known to hunt down and kill venomous spiders.

 


#3. Crab spiders

Types of spiders in New Mexico

Identifying Characteristics:

  • On average, females measure 7–11 mm. Males are much smaller and range between lengths of 2–4 mm.
  • Colors range widely based on the specific species. However, the most common colors are pink, yellow, white, green, or brown.

The best places to find crab spiders in New Mexico are near flowers.

Crab spiders don’t use webs to catch their prey. Instead, they sit and wait inside flowers or other vegetation low to the ground for something to eat. Once a suitable victim comes by, they use their long forelegs to ambush it and make the kill. When insects are in short supply, such as during bad weather, they eat pollen and nectar to avoid starvation.

YouTube video

Lastly, many crab spiders have developed a mutualistic relationship with certain plant species since these spiders feed on and help deter harmful insects. Some plants even release an emission after being attacked that helps attract crab spiders in hopes they eat the intruder.

 


#4. Daring Jumping Spider

  • Phidippus audax

Also called the Bold Jumping Spider.

Types of spiders in New Mexico

Identifying Characteristics:

  • 4-14 millimeters long, black with white markings on the abdomen and legs.
  • Eight eyes, but two are much bigger. Green metallic fangs.
  • Sometimes they have orange marks on the abdomen when they are younger. As they get older, they turn white.

Daring Jumping Spiders can jump up to 50 times their body length.

But luckily, they are TINY spiders. Could you imagine if they were the size of a tarantula?

Daring Jumpers are hunting spiders that like open areas to stalk and chase down prey. They only make webs to protect their egg sac or to rest in at night. Interestingly, when they hunt, these spiders will spin one strand of webbing to use as a lifeline. They do this just in case their jump fails, as the strand of web acts like a bungee cord.

Daring Jumpers are common in fields and grassy areas. You will sometimes find them on fences or walls of outside structures because they like flat surfaces, and they point downward to make it easier on themselves to catch prey. Why work harder when you could work smarter?

 


#5. American grass spiders

  • Agelenopsis

American grass spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Both sexes are shades of brownish-black with stripes running from front to back.
  • The abdomen is oblong and has two white stripes broken into sections.
  • The head has a lighter stripe running down the middle, dividing the two dark stripes.

Grass spiders are one of the fastest spiders in New Mexico.

Grass spiders are funnel weavers, which means they weave a funnel on one edge of their web. Their webs are not sticky, like other spiders. But once the silk is triggered, they use their speed to run quickly to get their prey.

Fortunately, they are harmless to humans. And they typically stay in their webs unless disturbed.

*The genus Agelenopsis consists of 14 species of grass spiders that live in North America.

 


#6. Black Widow

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Females are 6.35 mm to 9.5 mm long.
  • Shiny black with a distinctive red hourglass-shaped mark. A row of red spots is sometimes visible above.
  • Males are half the size of females but have longer legs.

Black Widows are the most venomous spiders in New Mexico!

In addition, they are probably the most popular and recognizable spiders in the world. Almost everyone knows the red-shaped hourglass mark that appears on females.

And even though they have highly toxic venom that is 15 times stronger than a rattlesnake, they are not aggressive. The Black Widow only bites defensively if the web is disturbed, and they RARELY bite humans.

YouTube video

 

But, if you are one of the few unlucky people who are bitten each year, you should know that the venom affects your nervous system. Some people are only slightly affected by it, but many have a severe response. If you are bitten, the bite requires medical attention, and the neurotoxic venom can be fatal to small children if untreated.

 


#7. Black and Yellow Garden Spider

  • Argiope aurantia

Also known as the Yellow Garden Spider.

black and yellow spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Both sexes have light-gray heads.
  • Females are around 1 inch (25 mm) long. The abdomen has a wide black mark in the center and sides and is covered with yellow patches.
  • The males are around .25 inches (6.3 mm) in length, not counting the legs.
  • Legs start off orange or dark yellow close to their body and are mostly black toward the ends.

This species is one of the most recognizable spiders in New Mexico!

Black and Yellow Garden Spiders make beautiful webs with a distinct circular shape of up to 2 feet (.6 m) in diameter. They are almost always found in sunny, open fields or gardens, as the name suggests. They are among the few species that make their webs in the daytime.

Look for a thick zigzag of silk in the center of the web called the stabilimentum (seen below). Some scientists think the zigzag mark helps to deter larger predators from running into it and destroying it. But other researchers think the stabilimentum reflects sunlight, which helps attract insects to the web.

Black and Yellow Garden Spiders are able to shake their web vigorously while remaining in the center of it. They do this to warn larger creatures to stay away and not run into the web. It also helps entangle insects before they get loose and fall off.

Despite their large size, these spiders are not aggressive. But they will bite if grabbed or provoked. However, the bite is harmless to humans, and the worse it can do is feel like a bee sting.

 


#8. Fishing spiders

  • Dolomedes

They’re also known as Fishing Spiders, Raft Spiders, Dock Spiders, or Wharf Spiders.

fishing spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Both sexes can vary in color; some are brown, black, or cream-colored brown.
  • Many species have a striking pale stripe down each side of the body; others have dots down the side of their body.

Fishing spiders are some of the largest spiders in New Mexico.

Several different species are found here, and they are all large nocturnal spiders that find their prey around water. You’ll often see them on the docks by a lake during the day.

These arachnids have special short velvet-like hairs that don’t get wet, allowing them to stand or run on the water. They wait for prey to make a ripple, then race across the water to grab it. Most fishing spiders eat insects, but some species can catch small fish.

YouTube video

 

They can also hunt underwater because of their specialized lungs, which help them breathe while submerged. However, the air in their lungs makes them float, so they need to hold onto a rock or plant, or they will rise to the surface.

 


#9. Harvestmen (Daddy Longlegs)

  • Opiliones

Harvestman spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Colors vary; most are dull brown or dull gray, but some may be yellowish, greenish-brown, or reddish.
  • Look for a dark blackish streak down the middle and sides.
  • Single body region, only two eyes that do not see well.

“Daddy Longlegs” might be the most recognizable spider in New Mexico!

We often see them in our yard, typically hiding underneath my kid’s playground or on rocks or logs. They are also very social, so you will often find them in large groups.

But even though Harvestmen look just like spiders, these arachnids are technically NOT spiders!

They are in the Order Opiliones, have no venom, lack fangs, and do not bite. In addition, Harvestman can swallow solid food, which allows them to eat small insects, fungi, dead organisms, bird dung, and other fecal matter. This differs from spiders that only eat their prey after turning them into a liquid.

YouTube video

As you might guess by their nickname, their legs play a vital part in their life. They use their legs for breathing, walking, smelling, and capturing prey. Males have longer legs than females, which they groom by licking. Seriously, you can watch this behavior in the video above!

 


#10. Spotted Orbweaver

  • Neoscona crucifera

Also known as the Hentz Orbweaver, Spotted Orbweaver, and Barn Spider.

spotted orb weaver Neoscona crucifera

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Most often, these spiders are golden-orange or rusty-red.
  • The legs have alternating dark brown and light brown bands.
  • The abdomen is hairy.

These spiders are most often seen in New Mexico in late summer and early fall.

Look for their large, orb-shaped web near lights, often constructed on buildings or other man-made objects. During the day, there is often a silken retreat that they retreat to for safety.

If you bother a Spotted Orbweaver, it will bite you in self-defense. But the venom is not dangerous to humans.

 


#11. Banded Garden Spider

  • Argiope trifasciata

Also known as the Banded Orb Weaving Spider.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • This species has an oval abdomen and bright body markings. The back of the abdomen is pale yellow with silvery hairs and lateral bands of black stripes. Males are usually paler, sometimes even white.
  • Adult females are around 13 to 14.5 mm long.
  • Males are considerably smaller, reaching only a third of the females’ length.

 

The Banded Garden Spider builds an enormous web, typically around 23.6 in (60 cm) in diameter. The web itself is sticky and strong, able to hold very large insects like wasps and grasshoppers. One interesting feature of their webs is the so-called “stabilimentum,” a vertical zigzag pattern made from dense silk. Researchers think this feature is a way to attract insects that the Banded Garden spider eats.

Females usually rest at the center of the web, facing downwards. They face their webs east-to-west to take advantage of the rising and setting sun and hang in the center with their dark underside facing south. All this allows them to gain as much warmth as possible, enabling them to stay active later in the year.

These spiders rarely bite humans in New Mexico and are not aggressive.

They may bite in self-defense if handled and bothered, but it’s unlikely that the bite would cause more discomfort than a bee sting.

 


#12. Brown Recluse

  • Loxosceles reclusa

Also known as the Violin Spider or Fiddle Back.

Brown recluse

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Both sexes are around 7 mm long.
  • Yellowish to grayish brown. The head is often darker, usually with faint or distinct violin-shaped marks.
  • Long legs.

These venomous spiders are found in New Mexico both outdoors AND indoors.

Yes, you can’t even escape them in your house, as Brown Recluses commonly live in homes and buildings. They prefer dimly lit locations, like dark corners in a basement, closets, cluttered areas, or even inside your shoe or bed!

Brown Recluse Range Map

Brown Recluse range maps

Luckily, Brown Recluse bites are rare and only bite if provoked.

Unfortunately, since they live indoors, bites often occur when you accidentally step or roll on them while sleeping. The bite is painless, so you may not even know you’ve been bitten until later.

Watch this video to see the damage a Brown Recluse bite can cause!

YouTube video

 

Bites can result in lesions, nausea, fever, and wounds that are slow to heal, becoming necrotic and sometimes causing secondary infections. Necrosis (death of cells) sets in quickly, resulting in a painful and gruesome “flesh-rotting” wound.

 


#13. Cat-faced Orbweaver

  • Araneus gemmoides

Also known as the Jewel Spider and Cat-faced Spider.

cat faced orbweaver

Identifying Characteristics:

  • They are found in many different colors.
  • Identified by the two horn-shaped growths found on the large abdomen.

The Cat-faced Orbweaver is a common spider in New Mexico.

Look for their webs near lights, closed spaces, and on the sides of buildings.

After laying a single egg sac filled with hundreds of babies, the female dies a few days later. As the spiderlings hatch from the egg sac, many of them will eat their siblings as their first meal!

The baby spiders that survive predation from their brothers and sisters have an interesting way of traveling to new locations. The spiderlings can float many miles away by riding strands of silk that are blown in the wind!

 


#14. Texas Brown Tarantula

  • Aphonopelma hentzi

Also known as the Oklahoma Brown Tarantula or Missouri Tarantula.

Texas brown tarantula

Identifying Characteristics:

  • 2-inch body length and 4-inch leg span.
  • The head is a lighter brown with a dark brown abdomen, but shades vary.
  • Legs, abdomen, and fangs are covered with fine hairs.

This species is one of the biggest spiders in New Mexico!

Look for Texas Brown Tarantulas in dry, arid environments, under stones, logs, and underground burrows. They can make their own burrow but commonly use unoccupied animal dens.

Texas Brown Tarantulas Range Map

Texas brown tarantula range map

Even though the Brown Tarantula is large, it is non-aggressive and typically runs away from humans. But if they feel threatened, they will stand on their hind legs and put up their front legs to appear larger to scare away a threat.

If you are bitten, which is EXTREMELY rare, the bite is quite painful because of its large fangs. But luckily, the venom is harmless to humans and doesn’t cause additional pain.

To help them be more successful hunters, Texas Brown Tarantulas will put silk at the entrance of their burrow. This acts like a security alarm, where they can feel the vibration and know that dinner is waiting!

tarantula burrow

Females have been known to live up to 40 years and are one of the longest-living spiders in New Mexico. On the other hand, males drew the short straw and rarely live past a year after they’ve matured.

 


#15. Brown Widow

  • Latrodectus geometricus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • The coloring is mottled tan and brown with black accent markings.
  • This species has an hourglass similar to the Black Widow, but it’s orange and not the deep red of the Black Widow.
  • The striped legs are usually dark brown or black with light yellow bands.

 

The Brown Widow employs a painful bite as its neurotoxic venom can cause pain, muscle rigidity, vomiting, and sweating. However, the bite from a Brown Widow is much less harmful than those of its famous cousin, the Black Widow. It is NOT considered dangerous to humans.

Females create webs in isolated, safe locations near houses and branch-heavy woods. Brown Widows frequently choose empty containers like buckets, planters, mailboxes, and entryway corners. So, checking these places thoroughly before disturbing them is a good idea!

One of the easiest ways to identify a Brown Widow is to look for its egg sacs. They have pointy protrusions and are frequently referred to as “fluffy” or “spiky” in appearance.

 


#16. False Black Widow

  • Steatoda grossa

Also known as the False Widow, Cupboard Spider, or Dark Comb-footed Spider.

false-black-widow

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Females measure 6-10.5 mm (0.23-0.41 in). Males are similar in size but thinner.
  • They’re dark brown with a round, bulbous abdomen.
  • The female abdomen is more rounded than the male’s.

 

As the name suggests, many people commonly confuse this spider in New Mexico with the venomous Black Widow. But luckily, this species is not dangerous, and it’s easy to differentiate because they don’t have the ominous red hourglass on the abdomen.

False Black Widows are considered cosmopolitan species, which means they are commonly found in and around homes. They prefer dark areas, such as under furniture or in basement corners. These spiders normally don’t bite unless they are accidentally pinched or squeezed. But if you are bitten, they may potentially cause you some harm, unlike most spiders. Common symptoms include blistering, muscle spasms, pain, fever, sweating, and discomfort lasting for several days.

 

Here are two facts about False Black Widows that I found fascinating!

  • Females can live up to six years! Males live shorter but still up to 1.5 years.
  • As long as they have access to water, they can live several MONTHS without food.

 


#17. Western Spotted Orbweaver

  • Neoscona oaxacensis

Also known as Zigzag Spider, Western Garden Orbweaver.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Females reach 9-18 mm (0.35-0.7 in) in body length. Males are usually 6-13 mm (0.24-0.5 in) long.
  • They have black and white wavy markings over their bulbous abdomens, and their legs are hairy with dark bands.

These orb-weaving spiders in New Mexico inhabit a wide range of habitats.

Look for them anywhere with trees, including orchards, wooded fields, and backyards. Western Spotted Orbweavers are most active during the summer and fall and generally prefer to hunt at night.

If you stumble upon an empty web, don’t assume it’s abandoned. A Western Spotted Orbweaver may be hiding at the edge, tucked away safely under a leaf. Here, they wait patiently for unlucky beetles, flies, lice, mites, and moths to get trapped.

Western Spotted Orbweavers lay their eggs inside curled leaves to safeguard them from predators. Once the spiderlings hatch, they live for six months to a year. Like all orb weavers, they are harmless to humans.

 


Learn more about animals found in New Mexico!


Do you need more help identifying a spider you found in New Mexico?

Try this field guide!

 


Which of these spiders have you seen in New Mexico?

Leave a comment below!

 

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