The 4 Types of Eagles Found in the United States! (2023)
What types of eagles can you find in the United States?
Whenever they appear, I make sure to stop and watch these incredible birds of prey. I’m always amazed at their beauty, large size, and astonishing ability to soar at extreme heights! And I’m not alone, as eagles have a special place in many people’s hearts and minds. These majestic birds symbolize many things, such as freedom, courage, honesty, inspiration, victory, and pride.
Unlike other raptors, there are not many eagle species that reside in the United States. In fact, there are only a few species that can be observed on the entire continent.
Below are the FOUR eagles that are seen in the United States!
Make sure to pay attention to the range maps to see which eagles live near you! For each species, I have included a few photographs, along with their most common sounds, to help you identify any birds you are lucky enough to observe.
Eagles That Live in the United States (4)
#1. Bald Eagle
- Haliaeetus leucocephalus
The Bald Eagle has been the national symbol of the United States since 1782, and is one of the most recognizable birds in the world!
But did you know that the “Bald” portion of their name has nothing to do with not having feathers on their head? As you can clearly see, these eagles have white feathers covering their entire face with no bald spots anywhere. Their name actually stems from the Old English word “piebald,” which means “white patch” and refers to their bright white heads.
While almost everyone knows what a full-grown Bald Eagle looks like, trying to correctly identify juvenile birds is tricky. These eagles don’t get their characteristic white head and dark brown body until they are FIVE YEARS OLD. Until then, these birds have all sorts of different plumages and streaky browns and whites on their bodies. Even their beak changes color! It takes A LOT of practice and experience to identify young Bald Eagles properly!
Bald Eagles are found across the United States!
After almost going extinct in the mid-20th century due to DDT poisoning, these raptors are a true success story. They are most commonly seen around bodies of water.
Bald Eagle Range Map
The reason that Bald Eagles are found around water is that they mostly eat fish! Look for them around marshes, lakes, coasts, and rivers. The BEST areas are forests near large bodies of water that provide good fishing AND tall trees for nesting sites.
Did you know that Bald Eagles build the largest nests in the world?
Their nests start “small,” but eagles add new layers each year. The biggest one EVER found was 10 feet wide (3 meters) and 20 feet tall (6 meters) and weighed in at 3 tons! Bald Eagles would keep adding to their nests each year, but what happens is that the structures get so heavy they eventually fall out of the tree, and the birds have to start over.
Press PLAY above to hear a Bald Eagle!
The Bald Eagle probably doesn’t sound like what you think. If you imagine an intimidating eagle call, then you would be wrong. I think they sound more like a gull, with trills and little whistles. In fact, movie directors are so unimpressed with the sounds a Bald Eagle makes, that it’s common for them to use the call of a Red-tailed Hawk instead for dramatic effect!
With unmatched eyesight, it is not at all surprising that Bald Eagles hunt from as high as 10,000 feet (3 km) in the air. Their vision is about eight times better than humans. More importantly, these eagles can see into the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This adaptation is helpful because it allows them to see past the reflections on the water’s surface and find fish that would otherwise be invisible in the glare.
Length: 28-40 inches / 70-102 cm
Weight: 6.5-15 lbs / 3-7 kg
Wingspan: 71-91 inches / 1.8-2.3 meters
#2. Golden Eagle
- Aquila chrysaetos
Golden Eagles are incredibly fast and agile, which makes them expert hunters. Where Bald Eagles mostly eat fish, these eagles almost always eat mammals. Their favorite prey includes rabbits, hares, ground squirrels, marmots, and prairie dogs. But these raptors have been known to hunt and kill animals as large as small deer, seals, mountain goats, coyotes, and badgers!
They have even been known to snatch a bear cub for dinner. Talk about bravery (or stupidity?)! 🙂
Golden Eagles are dark brown with gold feathers on the backs of their necks, which is how they got their name. Juvenile birds have white patches on their wings and tails. Immature Bald Eagles and adult Golden Eagles look similar and can be easily confused.
The distinguishing feature between these two birds is that the Bald Eagle doesn’t mind showing a little leg, whereas the Golden Eagle has feathers all the way down to the top of its feet.
These powerful raptors typically mate for life. To impress a female, male birds will pick up a stick or a rock and fly up high, only to drop it. Then the eagle will enter a dive to catch the object again before it hits the ground! Once a pair is together, it’s common for them to hunt cooperatively, where one individual ambushes the prey and drives it towards the second bird to make the kill.
Golden Eagles are known to like cliffs to build their nests on, but also have no problem using trees, observation towers, or nesting platforms. These raptors have even been known to nest on the ground! The most important feature these birds look for when it comes to building a nest is it needs to have a good view of the surroundings.
Golden Eagle Range Map
Golden Eagles are common to see in the western United States.
These birds prefer vast open areas such as landscapes that include cliffs, mountains, or hills. You can also spot these birds in grasslands, farmlands, shrublands, arctic tundra, and coniferous woodlands.
These eagles are not extremely noisy, and their calls sound like whistles that are weak and high. Just like Bald Eagles, for such a powerful raptor, you would think Golden Eagles would have a much more intimidating sound!
Length: 26-40 inches / 66-100 cm
Weight: 6.5-16 lbs / 3-7 kg
Wingspan: 71-91 inches / 1.8-2.3 meters
#3. Steller’s Sea-Eagle
- Haliaeetus pelagicus
The Steller’s Sea Eagle possesses dark brown plumage, white wings, and tail, a large yellow beak, and feet. Its beak is quite large, and you might even call them the toucan of eagles!
This eagle is among the heaviest in the world, weighing in at upwards of 21 pounds! As their name suggests, these birds eat anything that can be found in or near the sea. Fish are their favorite food, along with crabs, shellfish, squid, and birds such as ducks and gulls.
You will probably never see a Steller’s Sea Eagle in the United States. These birds primarily live on the coasts of eastern Asia, including Japan, Russia, China, and Taiwan. They don’t live in North America except by accident, where they can sometimes be found as a vagrant near Alaska.
These eagles make a deep, barking cry that sounds like “ra-ra-ra-raurau.” Another sound you may hear is similar to what a gull would make. Press the PLAY button above to listen!
Length: 34-40 inches / 85-100 cm
Weight: 10.5-21 lbs / 4.9-9.5 kgs
Wingspan: 79-98 inches / 2-2.5 meters
#4. White-tailed Eagle
- Haliaeetus albicilla
The White-tailed Eagle is common across all of Europe and Asia. Being a sea eagle, these birds typically live near bodies of water, such as saltwater coasts and large inland freshwater lakes. These eagles are considered close cousins to the Bald Eagle, and both of these species occupy a similar niche in their respective geographic locations.
Waterfowl and fish form the basis of their diet, but these eagles are opportunistic and will eat what is available. They even steal from sea otters and other birds, like ospreys. They don’t eat mammals much, but if one presents itself, then it’s likely that creature will become their next meal.
Your only chance of spotting a White-tailed Eagle in the United States is off the coast of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, where it’s sometimes spotted as a vagrant from east Russia.
These raptors are vocal during the breeding season, but like other eagles, their calls are not that impressive considering their large size. The males sound like their saying “gri-gri-gri” or “krick-krick-krick”, while the females have a deeper “gra-gra-gra-gra” or “krau-krau-krau-krau.” These noises are usually repeated between 15 to 30 times.
Length: 34-40 inches / 85-100 cm
Weight: 11-21 lbs / 4.9-9.5 kgs
Wingspan: 71-91 inches / 1.8-2.3
Do you need help identifying eagles?
Here are a few books and resources you can purchase that will assist! (Links below take you to Amazon)
National Geographic Guide to the Birds of North America View Cost - Amazon
Birds of Prey of the East and/or Birds of Prey of the West
Which eagles have you seen before in the United States?
Leave a comment below!
I work in Hershey Pennsylvania and we have a pair of bald eagles that nest on Swatara creek.
I’ve seen a pair of bald eagles at Lake Russell in south Alabama.
Today a Golden Eagle flew low toward my car and right in front of me it reversed its direction.
It was fascinating to see it up close. I have also seen a pair close to the same location a few years ago.
The location is Pebble Beach in Monterey County, California
I would venture to say “poetic license”!
I’ve seen Bald eagles near the Ohio river and the South Branch of the Potomac river in West Virginia, Marshall and Grant counties.
We see them on the Maumee River off Lake Erie . They fly up and down the river. Northwest Ohio. Toledo, Ohio
I saw a bald eagle in the city of Cleveland. We have a captured female in an aviary at our Natural History Museum. The male was flying around the outside of the aviary and perched in a nearby tree.
I see them all the time (year round even though your map seems to indicate that our area is winter only). I live on Lake Zoar in Sandy Hook, CT
The Ern, also known as the Sea Eagle, is the Osprey, which is the lone member of a separate family from hawks and eagles.
Where do the common crossword answers “ern” and “erne” fit into the eagles?
Thank you for this article! I heard you on a podcast, and I love this site. The live cameras are very compelling. I came to the site today because we had an eagle sighting in our neighborhood just above NYC, and I had no idea there were four types. I put a little quiz in my blog post to ask my readers what type of eagle it is, and someone suggested it was a golden eagle — and I think that’s what it was based on your article. Thanks for the great post.
I live on Cherokee Lake in Talbott, Tennessee and see and hear bald eagles often. We see them much more than hear their screeches. Their population has noticeably grown over the 17 years here on the lake.
We live near the Mississippi in central Missouri. We just went eagle watching. We watched approximately a dozen bald eagles fishing. Two of them were so high in the air that they appeared to be small dots most of the time. Two were juveniles. We thought we were watching golden eagles until we did some research and realized that golden eagles would not be fishing on the Mississippi. The eagles were flying amongst many gulls and a flock of about 50 pelicans. All of them were happily fishing together. None seemed worried about each other.
We see bald eagles frequently in Dunkirk, New York on the coast of Lake Erie.
I just saw a bald eagle today! Awesome article :>