“What types of milkweed should I plant in my garden?”

Common Milkweed in Quebec

This may seem like a crazy question if you’re just getting started with native gardening. Why would you want to plant a weed?!

 

But milkweed isn’t a weed at all. Instead, it’s a flowering plant that attracts butterflies (think Monarchs), native bees, and other pollinating insects, which is an excellent thing!

 

This article will give you information about common types of milkweed in your area and which ones will be best for your garden. And, keep reading to the end to learn about a kind of milkweed you want to avoid!

 

You will notice a USDA Hardiness Zone for each Milkweed plant in the article. This refers to areas of the US where plants do best, based on temperature. Here is a map showing the hardiness zones of Quebec:

Hardiness Zones in Quebec range from 0a to 6b.

 

8 Types of Milkweed in Quebec:

 


#1. Common Milkweed

  • Asclepias syriaca

Types of Milkweed found in Quebec

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Growing Information:

  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Life Cycle: Perennial
  • Approximate Mature Size: 1 to 1.5 meters; up to 2.5 meters.
  • Bloom Time: June to August

 

Common Milkweed is the species most people think of when they hear the name milkweed. It’s a hardy perennial and one of the most common types of milkweed in Quebec.

 

Milkweed gets its name from the latex or milky white secretions produced if the stem or leaves are broken. The leaves are oval, about 15 to 20 centimeters long, and dark green.

Milkweed species that live in Quebec

The blooms of the Common Milkweed plant are clusters of tiny flowers on stems that radiate from the larger central stem. These clusters are called umbels. The fragrant flowers are greenish-pink, pink, or purple and give way to 10-centimeter seed pods in the late summer and early fall. Initially, the pods are green but slowly mature to brown. Eventually, they split open, revealing seeds and fluffy white material called coma that allows the seeds to disperse on the wind.

 

Common Milkweed is an incredibly important wildflower in Quebec.

Over 450 native insects feed on the nectar, sap, leaves, and flowers. In addition, it’s an important food source for caterpillars of the Monarch Butterfly (Danuas plexippus). The adult butterflies lay their eggs exclusively on members of the milkweed (Asclepias) family.

Common Milkweed species in Quebec

Interestingly, all milkweed species contain cardiac glycoside compounds. Monarch Butterflies and other insects consume milkweed and store the compounds in their bodies. Potential predators have learned to steer clear of Monarchs to avoid this dangerous and bitter poison!

 

Common Milkweed is relatively easy to grow, and it’s one of the easiest ways you can help support Monarch Butterflies. You’ll need a place that receives full sun for planting. Common Milkweed does best in well-drained areas but isn’t picky about soil and can be grown in clay, loamy, or sandy areas. They tolerate poor soils and don’t need to be fertilized. It’s essential never to use pesticides on these plants since they kill species like Monarch Butterflies.

 

Common Milkweed can spread by seed, or underground rhizomes, which are root colonies. This means you can add Common Milkweed to your garden by directly sowing seeds or planting cuttings from an existing plant.

 


#2. Butterfly Weed

  • Asclepias tuberosa

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Growing Information:

  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Life Cycle: Perennial
  • Approximate Mature Size: 60 to 90 centimeters
  • Bloom Time: May to September

 

Butterfly Weed is a showy member of the milkweed family. Sometimes called Orange Milkweed, this perennial wildflower features large flat-topped clusters of tiny flowers that grow 5 to 10 centimeters across. The blooms are brilliant orange or yellow.

 

Interestingly, its dark green leaves and stems don’t produce the same milky sap as other species of milkweed in Quebec.

 

Butterfly Weed is an excellent choice for gardens and or wildflower meadows. The beautiful flowers are fragrant and are ideal for cut flower arrangements. They also attract native bees, butterflies, and honeybees to your garden. Butterfly Weed is also a host plant for Monarch, Gray Hairstreak, and Queen butterfly caterpillars.

This native flower is a great low-maintenance choice for the home gardener. Butterfly Weed’s deep taproots mean you’ll never need to water it once it’s established. In addition, this plant is highly drought tolerant and thrives in full sun. Butterfly Weed also does fine without any fertilization but grows best in rocky or sandy soil.

 

Unlike Common Milkweed, this species doesn’t transplant well and should be started from seed.

 


#3. Poke Milkweed

  • Asclepias exaltata

Growing Information:

  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Life Cycle: Perennial
  • Approximate Mature Size: 1 to 2 meters
  • Bloom Time: May to August

 

Poke Milkweed’s flower clusters are pendulous, hanging down from the plant like a weeping willow. They typically have about ten flowers, white with a green or lavender tinge. The leaves of the Poke Milkweed plant are dark green with purplish veins that stand out.

 

Unlike many milkweed species in Quebec, Poke Milkweed is often found in partial shade.

 

This species can be grown in partial shade to full sunlight in the garden. It prefers soil with moderate moisture and rich organic material. It can be grown successfully in many home gardens and is easy to start from seed.

 

Poke Milkweed is an excellent addition to any butterfly lover’s garden. It’s a host plant for the caterpillars of Monarchs, Great Spangled Fritillaries, Tiger Swallowtails, Skippers, and Pearl Crescents. Its blooms also attract various other bees and butterflies.

 


#4. Swamp Milkweed

  • Asclepias incarnata

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Growing Information:

  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-6
  • Life Cycle: Perennial
  • Approximate Mature Size: 1 to 1.5 meters
  • Bloom Time: June to October

 

As the name suggests, this moisture-loving perennial is typically found growing wild on creek banks and ditches or in openings in swamps, bogs, marshes, and other wet areas. So if you’re looking for a plant for the wet spot in your yard, Swamp Milkweed is a perfect choice.

 

This species thrives in wet, mucky clay soils. It’s great for planting around ponds or streams on your property. This species requires full sun to thrive and spreads through both seeds and underground rhizomes.

 

Like other milkweeds in Quebec, the blooms are clusters of smaller flowers. The light pink, purple, or white flowers of Swamp Milkweed will attract various species of native bees and butterflies to your garden. It’s also a host plant for monarch butterfly caterpillars.

 


Tropical Milkweed

  • Asclepias curassavica

Growing Information:

  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 8-11
  • Life Cycle: Perennial
  • Approximate Mature Size: up to 1.5 meters
  • Bloom Time: March to November in temperate climates, year-round in tropical climates.

 

This non-native milkweed plant has become popular in recent years because of its flowers’ bright red coloring and how easy it is to plant and maintain.

 

Unfortunately, Tropical Milkweed planted in Quebec may do more harm than good.

 

It carries a parasite of Monarch Butterflies called Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, or OE, which can cause defects in the wings of Monarchs. Since it doesn’t die back and can bloom late, the plant itself may also confuse Monarchs by signaling a breeding season when it’s time to migrate.

To ensure you’re planting milkweed that will help your local ecosystem and attract native pollinators, always choose a native species!

 

Marketers of Tropical Milkweed seeds will use the names Mexican Milkweed, Bloodflower, Mexican Butterfly Weed, Mexican Orange Milkweed, and Semi-Tropical Milkweed. Steer clear of all of these!

 


Are you looking for more information on milkweed in Quebec?

 

Check out this guide!

 


Do you have milkweed in your garden?

 

What’s your favorite thing about this plant? Leave a comment below!