The 3 Types of Rattlesnakes in Arkansas! (ID Guide)
Believe it or not, you can find THREE types of rattlesnakes in Arkansas!
But please don’t live in fear, thinking that you are going to be bitten. In general, rattlesnakes try to avoid any contact or interaction with people. The whole reason they have a rattle is to warn you to stay away! As long as you leave them alone, you shouldn’t have any trouble.
*If you come across any of these species, PLEASE DO NOT DISTURB! Rattlesnakes are dangerous animals and should be left alone. The more you agitate them, the more likely you could get bitten. DO NOT RELY ON THIS ARTICLE to correctly identify a rattlesnake that has recently bitten you. If you have recently been bitten, GO DIRECTLY to the nearest hospital to get help and determine if the snake is venomous.*
RELATED: The 50 Types of SNAKES Found in Arkansas! (ID Guide)
RELATED: Look for these 26 COMMON SPIDERS in Arkansas!
#1. Timber Rattlesnake
- Crotalus horridus
- Adults typically range from 30 to 60 inches in length.
- Coloration is variable and generally ranges from yellowish-brown to gray to almost black. Look for dark brown or black crossbands on their back.
- Heavy-bodied with a characteristic rattle on the tail.
The Timber Rattlesnake, also known as the Canebrake Rattlesnake, can be found in a wide variety of habitats in Arkansas. Look for them in lowland thickets, high areas around rivers and flood plains, agricultural areas, deciduous forests, and coniferous forests.
Timber Rattlesnake Range Map
Credit: Virginia Herpetological Society
These rattlesnakes are ambush predators, waiting for unsuspecting prey to come within range of their strike. They feed primarily on small mammals but may also consume frogs, birds, and other smaller snakes. Timber Rattlesnakes strike their prey and release them, waiting until the venom has taken effect before eating them.
Due to their large size, long fangs, and high venom yield, these rattlesnakes are potentially the most dangerous snake found in North America. Luckily, Timber Rattlenskaes have a mild disposition and don’t often bite. They also typically give plenty of warning by rattling and posturing.
The Timber Rattlesnake has played an interesting role in U.S. history. As it can be found in the area of the original 13 Colonies, it was used as a symbol during the American Revolution. In 1775 it was featured at the center of the “Gadsden Flag.” This yellow flag depicts a coiled and ready-to-strike Timber Rattlesnake and the words “Don’t Tread on Me.”
#2. Pygmy Rattlesnake
- Sistrurus miliarius
- Adults are small and range from 12 – 18 inches in length.
- Coloration varies, as there are three subspecies of Pygmy Rattlesnake.
- Thick body, dark bands that run from the corners of the eyes to the jaw, a small rattle prone to breaking, and elliptical pupils.
This species is the smallest rattlesnake found in Arkansas!
Pygmy Rattlesnakes occupy a wide variety of habitats. Typically, they can be found in pine forests, dry upland forests, floodplains, sandhills, and near lakes, rivers, and marshes. In addition, they are often encountered in urban areas and may be seen in gardens and brush piles.
Pygmy Rattlesnake Range Map
These rattlesnakes are rarely seen because they are so small and well camouflaged. When they are found, they typically remain silent and motionless and rely on blending into their environment.
It’s rare to hear them rattle. When they do, it sounds more like a faint insect and can be hard to hear unless you’re within a few feet of one.
Due to the Pygmy Rattlesnake’s small size, a bite typically isn’t fatal to healthy adults and is considered less severe than the bite of most other rattlesnakes. But make no mistake, these snakes’ cytotoxic venom can cause pain and necrosis for a few days.
#3. Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake
- Crotalus atrox
- Adults typically grow to about 4 feet in length.
- Coloration ranges from brown, gray, brick red, pinkish, and chalky white. Look for the darker diamond-shaped blotches down its back, outlined by white scales.
- Broad, spade-shaped head with a black mask over the eyes.
- A rattle on the tail alternates between black and white-colored bands.
This famous rattlesnake has a wide range of habitats in Arkansas!
You might spot them in deserts, grassy plains, forested areas, rocky hillsides, or river bottoms. But your best chance to see a Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake is probably on a rural road in the evening because of the heat the pavement retains.
Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake Range Map
These rattlesnakes feed on small mammals such as squirrels, chipmunks, gophers, prairie dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats. They will also consume birds that fly within reach. Like other pit vipers, they bite their prey and track them while the venom takes effect.
When threatened, the Western Diamond-backed will typically stand its ground. They rattle and coil, lifting themselves off the ground to prepare to strike.
If you hear their characteristic rattle, leave the area slowly! Due to their specialized fangs and large venom glands, these Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes can deliver a lot of venom in a single bite! Untreated bites have a mortality rate of 10 – 20%, so make sure to get to the hospital quickly if struck!
Do you need additional help identifying a rattlesnake?
I recommend purchasing a Peterson Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. These books have lots of helpful information, including pictures and range maps.
Which of these rattlesnakes have YOU seen before in Arkansas?
Leave a comment below!