Did you find a salamander in Oklahoma?
First, congratulations! Although these amphibians are widespread, they can be challenging to locate. The best places to look are in wet habitats under rocks and in creekbeds. Honestly, looking for salamanders is a really fun experience!
Below you will find a list of the most common and interesting salamanders that live in Oklahoma. You will find detailed pictures, along with range maps for each species to help with your identification!
13 Types of Salamanders in Oklahoma:
#1. Eastern Newt
- Notophthalmus viridescens
- Larvae are aquatic and have smooth, olive green skin, narrow, fin-like tails, and feathery gills.
- Juveniles are terrestrial and have rough, orangish-red skin with darker spots outlined in black.
- Adults have slimy, dull olive-green skin, dull yellow undersides, darker black-rimmed spots, and a blade-like tail.
Eastern Newts have the most complicated life cycle of any salamander in Oklahoma!
When they’re first hatched, they spend all of their time in the water. This larval stage lasts for two to five months. After that, they metamorphose into juvenile Eastern Newts.
They live in terrestrial forest habitats for two to seven years during their juvenile stage. Even though they generally remain hidden under moist leaf litter and debris, you may see them moving about on rainy days and nights, foraging insects, worms, and spiders. This is the stage of life you’re most likely to see an Eastern Newt. If you spot one, be careful – they have glands that secrete a potent neurotoxin when they’re threatened.
Finally, Eastern Newts will migrate back to a water source and metamorphose into aquatic adults, where they eat small amphibians, fish, and worms. They can live up to 15 years and spend the rest of their lives in this aquatic form.
Interestingly, Eastern Newts are known for their homing ability, which allows them to travel to and from their breeding ground. Though scientists are unsure of the exact mechanism, the Eastern Newt likely uses magnetic orientation to find its way!
#2. Spotted Salamander
- Ambystoma maculatum
- Adults are 5.9 to 9.8 inches long with wide snouts. They are typically black but may also be bluish-black, dark grey, dark green, or dark brown. Their underside is slate gray or pale pink.
- They have two uneven rows of spots down their back, from just behind their eyes to the tip of their tail. Spots on the head are orange and fade to yellow further down the body and tail.
- Larvae are light brown or greenish-yellow with small darker spots, external gills, and fin-like tails.
The Spotted Salamander is found primarily in hardwood forests with vernal pools, which are temporary ponds created by spring rain. Like many salamanders in Oklahoma, they require vernal pools for breeding because the fish in permanent lakes and ponds would eat all their eggs and larvae.
These salamanders are fossorial, meaning they spend most of their time underground. Spotted Salamanders are typically only seen above ground just after heavy rain, so you’ll need to get a little muddy to find one! They go dormant underground during the winter months and don’t come out until the breeding season between March and May.
The Spotted Salamander’s eggs are truly incredible. The embryos can host algae inside their eggs, and they are the only vertebrate known to do so. The embryos and algae have a symbiotic relationship. The algae have a suitable habitat, and in return, they produce the oxygen necessary for the embryos to grow and thrive.
#3. Eastern Tiger Salamander
- Ambystoma tigrinum
- Adults range from 6 to 8 inches in length.
- Their coloring is dark gray, brown, or black with brownish-yellow to greenish-yellow markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
- This species has a thick body and neck, short snout, strong legs, and a lengthy tail.
This species is one of the largest terrestrial salamanders in Oklahoma.
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground in woods, grasslands, or marshes. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights.
Their diet is primarily made up of insects, worms, slugs, and frogs. However, if there’s a prey shortage, they become much less picky. They’ve been observed feeding on baby snakes, newborn mice, and small salamanders of other species. They will even cannibalize their own young in times of low food supply!
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are very long-lived and have been known to reach 16 years of age in the wild. However, individuals in captivity can live much longer, up to 25 years.
Although Eastern and Western Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, because they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Secondly, Eastern Tiger Salamanders are much larger and have a black patch on their snout.
#4. Western Tiger Salamander
- Ambystoma mavortium
- Adults range from 3 to 6.5 inches in length.
- Their coloring is greenish-yellow with black markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
- This species has a thick body and neck and a short snout.
Western Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights. Their favorite hiding spots are burrows, which they can make themselves or borrow from other animals.
Interestingly, Western Tiger Salamanders have four distinct morphs as adults. Scientists classify them by whether they are aquatic or terrestrial, and also by what they eat. For example, a typical Western Tiger Salamander eats insects and frogs, breathes above water, and spends time on land.
However, there is a terrestrial morph that cannibalizes other Western Tiger Salamanders! In addition, there are cannibalistic and non-cannibalistic aquatic morphs that have gills and breathe underwater.
The aquatic individuals are called paedomorphs, and while they are mature and able to reproduce normally, they retain a lot of the features of larval Western Tiger Salamanders. The most obvious feature is their frilly, long gills!
Although Western and Eastern Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, because they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Second, Western Tiger Salamanders are smaller and lack the black snout patch that Eastern Tiger Salamanders have.
#5. Common Mudpuppy
- Necturus maculosus
- Adults range from 8 to 19 inches in length.
- This species is rusty brown to gray or black with scattered bluish-black or black spots, which sometimes merge to form stripes. The underside is whitish and may also have bluish-black spots.
- The large, bushy, red, or maroon external gills behind the flattened head make this species easy to identify.
Common Mudpuppies are among the most well-known salamanders in Oklahoma.
These LARGE salamanders can be found in nearly any body of water, including lakes, reservoirs, ditches, and rivers. They are secretive and require habitats with lots of cover, such as boulder piles, submerged logs, tree roots, or vegetation.
Common Mudpuppies are nocturnal and spend their days hiding under rocks. They’re active at night and hunt by walking along the lake or river bottom, but they can also swim. These opportunistic feeders eat whatever aquatic organisms they can catch, including insect larvae, small fish, fish eggs, aquatic worms, snails, and even carrion.
In the spring, when water temperatures don’t fluctuate as much, Common Mudpuppies spend time in shallow water. However, they have been reported in water as deep as 100 feet during the summer and winter!
#6. Four-Toed Salamander
- Hemidactylium scutatum
- Adults grow up to 3.9 inches in length.
- Orangish-brown to reddish-brown coloring with a brighter tail, grayish flanks, and white underside with small black spots.
- They have an elongated body and limbs, short snout, prominent eyes, and four toes on their hind feet.
Adult Four-Toed Salamanders are typically found in hardwood forests near bogs, floodplains, or swamps. They’re almost always found near sphagnum moss, and you’ll want to look under the leaf litter, logs, rocks, or other debris to find them.
As adults, these salamanders primarily feed on small invertebrates such as spiders, worms, and insects. Predators like larger salamanders, snakes, and birds of prey will hunt Four-Toed Salamanders while they forage. If threatened, they may play dead or drop their tails, giving them a chance to escape predators.
Four-toed Salamanders use old underwater burrows or cavities for overwintering. They choose spots deep enough to avoid freezing and often overwinter communally. They’ve even been found in groups with other species, such as the Red-backed Salamander.
Four-toed Salamanders are relatively uncommon throughout their range due to their specialized habitat, so if you see one in the wild, consider yourself lucky!
#7. Marbled Salamander
- Ambystoma opacum
- Adults range from 3.5 to 4.25 inches in length.
- Their coloring is dark brown or black. Males have white crossbands while females have silver or gray.
- Stout-bodied and chubby, females tend to be larger than males.
Marbled Salamanders occupy various damp habitats, from low-lying floodplains to moist, wooded hillsides. However, they spend most of their time underground or beneath rocks, logs, leaf litter, or other debris, so it’s unusual to find one unless you’ve disturbed its hiding place!
Marbled Salamanders in southeastern Oklahoma are considered a keystone species, which is an animal whose disappearance would completely change its ecosystem.
For example, let’s look at the relationship between Marbled and Spotted Salamanders:
Marbled Salamanders eat Spotted Salamander larvae, which eat zooplankton. If Marbled Salamanders were suddenly removed from this food chain, the Spotted Salamander population would explode.
With so many more Spotted Salamanders eating zooplankton, eventually, the zooplankton would become extinct in that area. Then, once their food source disappeared, Spotted Salamanders would also disappear.
For such a small animal, Marbled Salamanders are incredibly important!
#8. Small-Mouthed Salamander
- Ambystoma texanum
- Adults range from 4.3 to 7 inches in length.
- Their coloring is gray or dark brown, with light gray or silvery flecks on the back and gray blotches on black undersides.
- They have a relatively small head and long tail, and males are typically smaller than females.
Small-Mouthed Salamanders prefer wooded areas near wetlands or floodplains, but they also occupy open habitats like agricultural land and prairies. They remain hidden for most of the day, spending their time under rotting logs, rocks, and tree litter. They may also use old mammal and crayfish burrows.
If threatened, Small-Mouthed Salamanders typically raise and undulate their tail while tucking their head beneath it. In addition, their tails have granular glands on the top that produce toxic secretions to deter predators.
You’re most likely to see Small-Mouthed Salamanders as they migrate to nearby breeding ponds in February or March. They typically migrate at night during rainy weather. Their breeding grounds include vernal pools, runoff ponds, flooded areas, and roadside ditches.
#9. Lesser Siren
- Siren intermedia
- Adults range from 7 to 27 inches in length.
- Adult coloring is gray, brown, or nearly black, occasionally with dark spots and a paler underside. Juveniles have bold red to yellow bands on their heads and stripes running down their bodies, which fade as they age.
- They have elongated bodies with only two small, four-toed limbs behind the head and external gills.
Also known as the two-legged eel, dwarf siren, or mud eel, Lesser Sirens are found in calm, slow-moving backwaters and wetlands. They tolerate cloudy or murky water and prefer habitats with abundant vegetation for hiding. Lesser Sirens can bury themselves in the mud and go dormant if their water source dries up, allowing them to survive in seasonal wetlands.
Lesser Sirens are mostly nocturnal and spend their days hidden in organic matter or mud near the bottom of their water source. To make up for their limited eyesight and murky habitats, they have a lateral line organ, which allows them to sense vibrations in the water.
Unlike most salamanders in Oklahoma, Lesser Sirens are vocal! When interacting with other Sirens, they produce clicks or yelps and emit a short screeching sound if handled.
#10. Three-toed Amphiuma
- Amphiuma tridactylum
- Adults typically range from 18 to 30 inches in length though individuals as long as 41.25 inches have been recorded.
- They are uniformly dark gray or brown.
- This species has a long eel-like body, small lidless eyes, gill slits, and tiny three-toed vestigial legs.
Look for Three-toed Amphiumas in aquatic habitats, including lakes, streams, and drainage ditches. They prefer slow-moving, heavily vegetated bodies of water. Despite their small, vestigial legs Three-toed Amphiumas will move over land during and after periods of heavy rain.
Three-toed Amphiumas are nocturnal predators. They feed primarily on crayfish but will also consume insects, fish, small turtles, and skinks. Often these eel-like salamanders will sit with only their head protruding from their burrow and strike prey that wanders by.
Other than snakes, Three-toed Amphiumas have few natural predators. Take care to avoid getting too close or handling this species, though. They generally flee when threatened but deliver a painful bite if grabbed.
#11. Mole Salamander
- Ambystoma talpoideum
- Adults typically range from 3 to 4 inches in length.
- Their coloring is black, brown, or gray with pale bluish or silvery flecks.
- They have large, flattened heads, stout bodies, and two light stripes on their underside.
- The aquatic morph has external gills.
Unlike other salamanders in Oklahoma, some Mole Salamanders live on land, while others live in water.
Mole Salamander juveniles will either metamorphose into a terrestrial form or grow and remain aquatic. Interestingly, both the aquatic and terrestrial morphs are capable of breeding, and they may even interbreed.
Scientists don’t fully understand why some Mole Salamanders undergo metamorphosis and others don’t. They may be affected by environmental conditions, including prey availability, water level, and predation. One study indicated that aquatic morphs breed earlier and have higher survival rates than terrestrial morphs.
Aquatic Phase of the Mole Salamander
Although they die at a higher rate as juveniles, terrestrial morphs seem to have longer lifespans. Mole Salamanders may live for up to 20 years in the wild.
#12. Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamander
- Desmognathus auriculatus
- Adults range from 3 to 6 inches in length.
- Their coloring is brown to black with 1 or 2 rows of white spots on the sides, a light stripe extending from the eye toward the base of the jaw, and a gray-brown to black underside with small white speckles.
- The hind legs are noticeably larger than the front limbs, and the tail is long and slightly flattened.
These salamanders are typically found in muddy areas close to ponds, swamps, floodplains, and slow-moving or stagnant streams. They’re nocturnal and spend most of their time under logs, rocks, leaf litter, and other debris.
Unlike other terrestrial salamanders, Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamanders rarely stray far from the water. They feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. So, if you want to find one, your best chance is to explore creeks, swamps, or other calm, shallow water.
Some populations of Holbrook’s Southern Dusky Salamanders have seen unexplained declines across their range since the 1960s. In addition, they’ve disappeared from portions of their range altogether, such as the Florida peninsula.
#13. Long-tailed Salamander
- Eurycea longicauda
- Adults range from 4 to 8 inches in length.
- Their coloring is yellow to brownish-red with many black spots, which may form broken lines and are often more distinct on the tail, and a light yellow or cream underside.
- They have a noticeably long tail, large eyes, and a slender body.
Long-tailed Salamanders prefer wet, covered habitats like the sides of streams, ponds, springs, cave mouths, limestone seeps, and abandoned mines.
Look for these salamanders during the first few hours after sunset on humid or rainy evenings. They’re nocturnal and spend most of the day under rocks, logs, leaf litter, and other debris.
When threatened, this species of salamander will quickly escape into cover. If a predator grabs its tail, it will easily break off, allowing them to escape.
Unlike other salamanders in Oklahoma, Long-tailed Salamanders don’t display territorial behavior. Groups of 80 individuals have been found under single rocks, and one study found 300 individuals at the end of a mine shaft!
Which of these salamanders have you seen in Oklahoma?
Tell us about it in the comments!
Also, if you enjoy this article, make sure to check out these other guides about herps! As you may have guessed, “herps” refers to herpetology, the study of reptiles and amphibians like salamanders.