20 COMMON Snakes in India! (2024)

Do you want to learn about the types of snakes in India?

Types of snakes in India

If so, you’ve come to the right place. In the article below, I have listed the snakes you can expect to see. Then, for each species, you will find out how to identify that snake correctly, along with pictures, interesting facts, and RANGE MAPS!

You’ll see that the snakes that live in India are very different from each other. They range from venomous species to snakes that use constriction to immobilize their prey. In addition, certain snakes are common to find living around people.

20 COMMON snakes that live in India:


#1. Banded Krait

  • Bungarus fasciatus

Common India snakes

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are about 0.8 m (2.6 ft) long, but the largest recorded was 2.7 m (9 ft).
  • Its body is covered in horizontal yellow and black bands. The underparts of the head are yellow.
  • The head is black, with a broad shape, but not distinct from the body. Look for its distinctive keeled spine, which gives its body a triangular shape.

Banded Kraits can be seen in diverse habitats, ranging from forests to agricultural lands and open countryside plains. They often live near human settlements, especially villages, because of the large supply of rodents and water.

Due to their love of water, they can most commonly be seen during rainy seasons. They are also nocturnal and usually hunt at night, mainly feeding on other snakes but are also known to eat fish, skinks, frogs, and snake eggs.

If harassed, they will hide their heads under their coils and do not generally attempt to bite. But, since they are more active at night, it can be easy to stumble upon one and wind up in danger. The Banded Krait’s venom contains neurotoxins, and though bites are rare, it’s best to avoid this snake in India.


#2. Common Mock Viper

  • Psammodynastes pulverulentus

Common snakes found in India

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults reach a maximum length of 65 cm (26 in).
  • Their coloring is brown with darker brown and white flecks.
  • The head is paddle-shaped and wider at the back.

Common Mock Vipers got their name by mimicking the most venomous snakes in India.

Its impressive mimicking abilities include changing the shape of its pupils to resemble a viper and mimicking the viper’s attacking technique. However, despite its excellent acting skills, this species is not venomous, and its bite is harmless, though painful, to humans.

Common Mock Vipers live in tropical wet forests. Even though they are primarily terrestrial snakes, they can climb trees and branches. Sometimes, they use this ability to hang over the water and wait for prey to wander by.


#3. Checkered Keelback

  • Fowlea piscator

Snakes of India

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults reach up to 1.75 m (5.7 ft) in length.
  • Their scale patterns form a chessboard pattern with varying colors, including pale brown, whitish, and beige to dark brown and black.
  • The belly and throat are pale tan or white.

The Checkered Keelback is an aquatic snake in India found in freshwater lakes and rivers.

Since it’s not a venomous species, it’s adapted other abilities to help it stay safe. For example, as a defense mechanism, the snake mimics a cobra by raising its head and expanding its neck to intimidate predators. It can also self-amputate its tail to run away from a threat.

Although it’s non-venomous, its bite can cause pain and inflammation. A mild pain medication or anti-inflammatory drug will help, but it’s best to avoid a bite from this species!


#4. Oriental Ratsnake

  • Ptyas mucosa

Also known as Darash Indian Ratsnake or Dhaman.

Types of snakes in India

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 1.5-1.95 m (5-6.3 ft), while the record is 3.7 m (12 ft) long.
  • Their color varies depending on habitat: pale browns in dry regions and nearly black in moist forest areas.
  • Regardless of the upper coloring, the belly is a pale yellow to cream.

Look for Oriental Ratsnakes in rice paddies, wetlands, farmland, and suburban areas. They usually prey upon small reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Interestingly, adults subdue their prey by sitting on it, using their body weight to weaken it.

Oriental Ratsnakes are wary, quick to flee, and fast-moving. If they can’t get away, adults make a growling sound and inflate their necks to mimic the posture of the King Cobra. This mimicry is likely a response to King Cobras preying on juvenile Oriental Ratsnakes.

Aside from cobras, these snakes don’t face any other animal predators. However, in some regions, humans hunt them for their skin and meat. Currently, there are efforts to regulate hunting and protect the population.


#5. Indian Cobra

  • Naja naja

Also known as Spectacled Cobra, Binocellate Cobra, or Asian Cobra.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 1-1.5 meters (3.2-5 ft) long.
  • They are uniformly black on top, while the underside is light gray, tan, or brown. Horizontal black bars decorate the throat.
  • A pattern similar to a pair of glasses can be seen on the back of the neck, in the center of this species’ hood.

The Indian Cobra is a member of the “Big Four,” a group of snakes responsible for almost all deaths caused by snakes in India. Its venom has a potent neurotoxin that leads to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. It’s vital to be treated with the antivenom within 30 minutes to avoid the worst symptoms, so get treatment as soon as possible if you’re bitten.

This species lives in varied habitats throughout its range. It can be found in forests, plains, agricultural lands, wetlands, and rocky terrain. It even inhabits heavily populated urban areas, villages, and city outskirts.

Many people recognize Indian Cobras because of their use by Indian snake charmers. They also used to be used in snake fighting shows. Luckily, this practice has been outlawed.


#6. Buff Striped Keelback

  • Amphiesma stolatum

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 40-50 cm (16-20 in) long.
  • Their coloring is dark gray or black with bold, vertical, cream-colored stripes.
  • The undersides of the head and throat are a vibrant yellow.

The Buff-striped Keelback is a nonvenomous terrestrial snake that prefers wet lowland plains. This species isn’t dangerous to humans and rarely bites. But it will put on a show when threatened by flattening its head to form a cobra-like hood.

Look for Buff-striped Keelbacks during the day when they hunt for frogs, toads, earthworms, fish, and geckos. They have long rear teeth that easily capture slippery creatures and lock them in their jaws.

There are two morphs, both with the same apparent coloring and pattern. The only difference is the coloring between the scales, which is visible when the snake puffs out its body in a defensive move. The “typical” morph has silvery blue coloring between its scales (pictured above), while the second morph’s coloring is a vibrant red.


#7. Russell’s Viper

  • Daboia russelii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults reach 1.24 m (4 ft) long.
  • Their coloring is yellow, tan, or brown, with three vertical series of dark brown spots along the length of the body.
  • The belly is white, pink, or yellow, often with an uneven scattering of dark spots.
  • They have a flat triangular head, distinct from the neck, and a slightly raised snout.

The Russell’s Viper avoids dense forests and humid environments, such as marshes, swamps, and rainforests. Instead, look for this species in open, grassy areas, farmland, and forested plantations. This species is also often found in highly urban areas and settlements in the countryside. They are attracted to human habitation because of the rodents in these areas.

When threatened, they tend to form a series of S-loops, raising the first third of their body, and produce a hiss that is louder than any other snake. If you encounter a Russell’s Viper in this stance, back away slowly to avoid its bite.

Russell’s Vipers inject venom through backward-pointed fangs, which burrow deeply into the flesh and deposit large amounts of toxin. The potent venom is enough to kill a human with one bite, so maintain a safe distance when observing this snake in India.


#8. Indian Wolf Snake

  • Lycodon aulicus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults reach 71 cm (28 in) in total length. Females can sometimes be larger than males.
  • Their coloring varies from light brown to black, with thin, light-colored bands along the body.
  • They have fangs in the upper jaw that they use for biting, even though they are nonvenomous.

The Indian Wolf Snake is strictly nocturnal, so you won’t have any luck finding this species during the day. It hunts frogs and lizards, specifically skinks, which comprise most of its diet. Its teeth are designed to pierce the smooth scales of skinks and hold on tightly to prevent them from escaping.

Even though it is nonvenomous, the Indian Wolf Snake defends itself aggressively by biting with its sharp fangs. It can leave deep, painful puncture wounds and lacerations. Another important defense of the Indian Wolf Snake is its ability to fake death. Individuals will lie completely motionless until the danger has passed.


#9. Burmese Python

  • Python bivittatus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults grow up to 5 m (16 ft) in length.
  • They are dark colored with brown blotches bordered by black down the length of their bodies.
  • Females are usually a little longer and heavier than males.

The Burmese Python is an excellent swimmer and climber, using its prehensile tail to grip branches as it moves through trees. They can remain underwater for up to 30 minutes but spend most of their time on land. Because of poaching, habitat destruction, and egg hunting for trade, Burmese Pythons are listed as a Vulnerable species by the IUCN in their native range.

Burmese Pythons are often sold as pets since they have attractive color morphs and an easygoing disposition.

Unfortunately, irresponsible pet owners have let Burmese Pythons escape, allowing this species to become invasive in the Florida Everglades. The Everglades provide a perfect habitat for these invasive snakes, with plenty of water and flat land. However, there are no predators here to keep the population in check, and they’ve come close to wiping out several native species because of their enormous numbers.

YouTube video

#10. King Cobra

  • Ophiophagus hannah

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 3-3.6 m (10-12 ft) long, but the largest specimens can grow up to 5.4 m (18 ft).
  • Their coloring is olive green with black and white bands on the body.
  • They have a prominent hood that opens in a defensive stance and a rounded nose.

The King Cobra is the longest venomous snake in India.

Despite its size, this species is not considered particularly aggressive. It usually avoids humans and slinks off when disturbed. However, it is known to defend incubating eggs aggressively and strikes intruders rapidly. A single attack can deliver multiple bites.

Interestingly, the venom of hatchlings is as potent as the adults’. The babies are brightly marked, but these colors often fade as they mature. In addition, they are often nervous and alert, which makes them highly aggressive if disturbed.

Whether you encounter a juvenile or an adult, it’s best to give this dangerous snake a lot of space. Its bite results in excruciating pain, blurred vision, dizziness, fatigue, and even paralysis. If the bite victim doesn’t receive medical help, they can die from cardiovascular and respiratory failure within 30 minutes of the bite. Stay back!


#11. Golden Tree Snake

  • Chrysopelea ornata

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 115-130 cm (45-51 in) long.
  • Their coloring is green, with black cross-hatching and yellow, red, or gold accents.
  • They have slender bodies and flat heads with defined necks.

Golden Tree Snakes hunt for bats, lizards, and small rodents during the day. This species is an arboreal snake that lives mostly on tree branches. It has great gliding ability and is an excellent climber, easily moving from tree to tree.

It is mildly venomous and uses its venom to subdue its fast-moving prey. The snake stalks after the prey once it’s delivered a bite and seizes it by the neck, which is crushed in its strong jaws. Because their venom is mild, a bite from this species can be irritating and painful to humans but is not life-threatening.

Golden Tree Snakes have become increasingly available in the exotic pet trade in recent years. Unfortunately, many imported specimens have heavy parasite loads, and the stress of captivity often leads to untimely death. It’s much better to observe this species in the wild since it does poorly in captivity.


#12. Oriental Whipsnake

  • Ahaetulla prasina

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults grow up to 1.8 m (6 ft) long.
  • This species has a slender body with a long, pointed snout.
  • Their coloring varies from light brown to dull yellow-green and fluorescent green. Some individuals have a checkered pattern of light and dark green scales.

The Oriental Whipsnake is one of the most colorful snakes in India!

Its impressive range of colors makes it difficult to recognize because individuals look so different from one another. However, the slender body and incredibly large, spade-shaped head should help with your identification.

This species is arboreal, so it usually lives in forest edge habitats such as parklands, rural agricultural areas, and wooded residential areas. It’s also a diurnal snake, so the best place to find one is sunbathing or hunting during the day. They eat small nesting birds, lizards, and tree frogs.

Oriental Whipsnakes are mildly venomous, but the toxins are not strong enough to hurt humans. If you see one, observe from a respectful distance, but you don’t need to rush away.


#13. Reticulated Python

  • Malayopython reticulatus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 1.5-6.5 m (5-21 ft) long. They weigh 1-75 kg (2-165 lbs).
  • Their coloring is a mix of brown, beige, black, gray, white, and yellow in a complex geometric pattern.
  • The back typically has a series of irregular diamond shapes flanked by smaller markings with a light center.

The Reticulated Python is the largest snake in India.

Look for this GIGANTIC species in woodlands, rainforests, and grasslands. It can also be found near rivers and lakes, as it is an excellent swimmer.

The Reticulated python is an ambush predator. It waits until the prey gets within striking distance, seizes it, and then constricts until the prey’s heartbeat stops. Its usual diet includes mammals and birds, but this species will snatch pets such as cats and dogs if they come across them.

This mammoth species is one of only a few snakes that prey on humans. A fully-grown Reticulated Python can open its jaws wide enough to swallow a human, and its powerful body can strangle even large adults rather quickly.

Reticulated Pythons are popular zoo attractions, and many zoos claim to have the largest one. However, it’s notoriously difficult to accurately measure this species while it’s alive. Their weight and tremendous strength mean that straightening this species is virtually impossible. Nevertheless, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, a Reticulated Python in Kansas City, Missouri, named “Medusa,” is the largest snake in captivity. It measures an estimated 7.67 m (25 ft) long and weighs 158 kg (348 lb).


#14. Indo-Chinese Rat Snake

  • Ptyas korros

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults grow up to 108 cm (43 in) long.
  • The upper body is olive, orange, or brown, and the belly is yellow. The tail is yellow, edged with black.
  • This species has very large round eyes with round pupils.

The Indo-Chinese Rat Snake is active during the day when it hunts lizards, rodents, and sometimes birds. They can adapt to various habitats but prefer forested areas, grasslands, and plantations close to a water source. This species is common to find on walks and hikes because it’s relatively comfortable around people. Watch your step!

Indo-Chinese Rat Snakes are non-venomous, but their bite is still painful. Their first response to danger is to flee quickly. If that doesn’t work, they can expand their neck vertically, making them look taller and more imposing to predators. Finally, they will strike if forced into a confrontation.


#15. Painted Bronzeback

  • Dendrelaphis pictus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 60-100 cm (24-39 in) long.
  • Their coloring is brown on top and white below, with a black line, a yellow line, and bright blue markings on the sides.
  • This species is thin and long with a small head and large eyes.

The arboreal Painted Bronzeback lives mostly in forested areas near a water source. However, you may also spot one in artificial habitats such as parks and gardens. They rest and sleep high up in trees or bushes and only occasionally come to the ground to hunt. They often prey on lizards and frogs.

Painted Bronzebacks are non-venomous and shy; they will usually flee if disrupted. If handled, the snake will inflate its body and flatten its neck laterally to reveal its turquoise color, then open its mouth and show off its bright red tongue. If these scare tactics don’t work, it will give a painful bite.


#16. Copperhead Rat Snake

  • Coelognathus radiatus

Also known as Radiated Ratsnake or Copper-headed Trinket Snake.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 150-210 cm (59-83 in) long.
  • Their coloring is brown, copper, gray, or tan, with black stripes that fade toward the tail.
  • This species has a slender head with medium round eyes and round pupils.

Despite being non-venomous, this is one of the most aggressive snakes in India!

Copperhead Rat Snakes are so vicious they’re often used as training snakes for people looking to get into handling venomous species, especially cobras. They’re highly defensive, making them difficult to control.

If they find themselves threatened, they inflate the neck to show bluish skin, bend the anterior half of the body into loops and open the mouth widely. If handled, they have a very quick strike and painful bite.

The Copperhead Rat Snake’s usual habitats are rocky, overgrown open spaces, grassy areas, shrublands, and jogging trails. They are mostly active during the day, so use caution if you go hiking or running in its range.


#17. Brahminy Blindsnake

  • Indotyphlops braminus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 5.1-10.2 cm (2-4 in) long.
  • Their coloring varies; charcoal gray, light yellow-beige, silver-gray, purplish, and white are common.
  • The body shape is worm-like, and they are easily mistaken for earthworms.

This tiny species is the smallest snake in India.

The Brahminy Blindsnake, as its name suggests, is almost completely blind. It has small, translucent eyes that can detect light but not form images. Although native to India, this species is naturalized worldwide. It’s transported in the soil of potted plants, so the species earned the nickname Flowerpot Snake.

They spend almost all their time underground in ant and termite nests and live under logs, moist leaves, and stones. Look for them in suburban and even urban gardens and moist forests.

When distressed or attacked, the Brahminy Blindsnake will try to escape underground. If touched, it might press its tail on the attacker and release a smelly musk. Despite its rather creepy appearance, this snake is completely harmless to humans.


#18. Jan’s Cliff Racer

  • Platyceps rhodorachis

Also known as Braid Snake, Common Cliff Racer, Desert Racer, and Wadi Racer.

Credit: Barbod Safaei via Wikimedia Commons

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 100-110 cm (39-43 in) long.
  • They are slim-bodied with long, tapered tails.
  • Their coloring is gray or brown; some specimens have a single red line running along their backs from head to tail.

This small but speedy snake is native to India. It makes its home in dry areas with sparse vegetation, such as semi-deserts and canyons. Lock your doors, or a Jan’s Cliff Racer might wander into your household searching for prey or a place to rest!

These reptiles are highly alert and have good vision. Adults chase down small lizards and rodents in the daytime and are even known to raid bird nests. Juvenile racers need smaller prey, such as crickets and other insects. 

Jan’s Cliff Racers are timid, non-venomous creatures and harmless to humans. If you come across one, it will likely retreat into a crack or crevice. A cornered cliff racer, however, will hiss and strike at potential threats. Watch your toes!


#19. Diadem Snake

  • Spalerosophis diadema

Also known as Royal Snake, Diademed Snake.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are fairly slender and can grow to 180 cm (71 in) in length.
  • They are commonly pale and sandy in color with darker spots and blotches and a dark, reddish head.
  • The scales on the head have an iridescent shine, resembling a crown or diadem. This is how the snake got its name!

Diadem Snakes in India are most at home in sandy deserts and rocky lowlands.

You can find them tucked beneath rocks, roots, or abandoned animal burrows for protection. In deserts, they stay close to oases for easy access to food and water. They are primarily land-dwellers, but they have no trouble climbing trees.

Though mostly active in daylight, Diadem Snakes prefer hunting at dusk in the hotter seasons. Their venom is strong enough to kill prey but too weak to harm humans. They have an appetite for lizards, birds, small mammals, and even other snakes!

This quick-moving reptile will attempt to flee or thrash around to intimidate predators when danger is afoot. A cornered Diadem Snake can be unpredictably aggressive. Their bites can be painful, so keep your distance.


#20. Saw-scaled Viper

  • Echis carinatus

Also known as Indian Saw-scaled Viper, Phoorsa, Little Indian Viper, or Sindh Saw-scaled Viper.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults average 38-80 cm (15-31 in) long. 
  • They have flat, broad heads and very short snouts, with a cross-shaped marking on the top of their heads and remarkably large eyes.
  • Their coloring is gray, olive, and red to match their ground habitat. A series of spots, stripes, and dark borders decorate the body.

The Saw-scaled Viper is one of the snakes in India known as the ‘Big Four’–  which are the snakes responsible for the majority of serious bite incidents. It’s the smallest member, but make no mistake! One bite from this viper can cause internal bleeding and death within a few hours.

You’ll find Saw-scaled Vipers in shrublands and deserts. They like to rest inside burrows and fallen logs during the day. They feed on rodents, lizards, scorpions, and centipedes at night. When it rains, adults scramble up to higher trees, shrubs, and cacti. 

Look out for strange S-shaped indents in the sand or listen for loud rasping noises. These are the tell-tale signs that there’s a Saw-scaled Viper nearby. They are highly aggressive and capable of lunging to deliver a bite.


Do you want to learn about other animals in India?

If so, check out these guides!


Which of these snakes have you seen before in India?

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