13 COMMON SPIDERS Found in Iran! (2023)

What kinds of spiders can you find in Iran?

Types of spiders in Iran

 

Before we begin, I want you to know that the list below is just a fraction of the spider species in Iran. Because of the sheer number of these arachnids, it would be impossible to cover them all. For example, some estimates claim there are over 50,000 kinds of spiders on the planet (and the list is still growing)!

 

With that being said, I did my best to develop a list of spiders that are MOST often seen and easily identified.

 

Here are the 13 COMMON SPIDERS found in Iran!

 


#1. Red-bellied Jumping Spider

  • Philaeus chrysops

Common Iran spiders

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Males are very colorful with an abdomen that is bright orange-red that has a black stripe down the middle.
  • Females are pale brown or orangish-brown. Look for two whitish stripes on the back of her abdomen.

 

Unusual for spiders in Iran, males are often bigger than females!

 

Like other jumping spiders, this species does not make webs to catch prey. Instead, they actively hunt, using their excellent vision to locate their next meal, then jump on them to finish the job. Red-bellied Jumping Spiders ONLY hunt during the warmest parts of the day, so if you observe closely, you may be able to watch them in action!

 

Look for Red-belled Jumping Spiders in dry, open, warm areas with low vegetation. They are most often seen during the warm spring and summer months.

 


#2. Mediterranean False Black Widow

  • Steatoda paykulliana

Common spiders found in Iran

Identifying Characteristics:
  • Globular abdomen is shiny black, except for two reddish stripes, although the patterns range in color.
  • Males are roughly half the size of females with less distinct markings.

 

True to its name, this spider closely resembles the infamous Black Widow. But luckily, the venom from a Mediterranean False Black Widow is NOT deadly nor particularly dangerous to humans like the Black Widow.

 

But that does not mean that you should carelessly handle this spider, as their bite doesn’t come without consequences. Being bitten by a Mediterranean False Black Widow is very similar to getting stung by a bee. Common symptoms include blistering, muscle spasms, pain, fever, sweating, and a general feeling of discomfort lasting for several days.

 

False Black Widows are considered a cosmopolitan species, which means they are common to find in and around homes. They prefer dark areas, such as under furniture or basement corners. But please don’t live in fear, as these spiders normally don’t bite unless they are accidentally pinched or squeezed.

 


#3. Mediterranean Recluse

  • Loxosceles rufescens

Spiders of Iran

Also called the Fiddleback Spider.

Identifying Characteristics:
  • Both sexes are around 7mm long.
  • Yellowish to grayish brown. Long legs.
  • The head is often darker, usually with a distinct violin-shaped mark.

 

This species is one of the most dangerous spiders in Iran!

 

While some bites are medically insignificant, others cause symptoms such as lesions, nausea, fever, and wounds that are slow to heal, becoming necrotic and sometimes causing secondary infections. Necrosis (death of cells) sets in quickly, resulting in a very painful and gruesome “flesh-rotting” wound. Please seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you received a bite from a Mediterranean Recluse.

 

A big problem with these spiders is that they are commonly found around people since they prefer hiding in small, dark crevices. Unfortunately, basements, shoes, and other infrequently used areas of homes provide perfect habitats for them. In addition, their bite is typically painless, so you may not know it happened until you start experiencing symptoms.

 


#4. Camel Spiders

  • Order – Solifugae

Types of spiders in Iran

Camel Spiders, also known as Wind Scorpions, Sun Spiders, or Solifuges, are arachnids, but they are not considered true spiders or scorpions. In fact, the 1,000 or so worldwide species of Camel Spiders are grouped in a separate order – Solifugae. In Iran, Camel Spiders are found in arid, desert habitats.

 

These arachnids are feared by many people and are the subjects of many urban legends. One reason for their reputation is that they are incredibly fast, with their top speed coming in at 10 mph (16 km/h). Combine their speed with their spider-like appearance, and you can see how almost anyone can be startled!

 

Luckily, Camel Spiders are NOT venomous, as they do not have a way to deliver venom like the fangs of a spider. But, their chelicerae (appendages at the front of the mouth) are strong and can penetrate human skin, so bites are reported to be very painful.

 

Camel Spiders are aggressive hunters and opportunistic eaters. In addition to many types of insects, they have been observed eating birds, rodents, snakes, and lizards. They use their powerful chelicerae to cut larger prey into pieces, which are then liquefied before being consumed.

 


#5. Banded Garden Spider

  • Argiope trifasciata

Also known as the Banded Orb Weaving Spider.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • This species has an oval abdomen and bright body markings. The back of the abdomen is pale yellow with silvery hairs and lateral bands of black stripes. Males are usually paler, sometimes even white.
  • Adult females are around 13 to 14.5 mm (0.51-0.57 in) long.
  • Males are considerably smaller, reaching only one-third of the females’ length.

 

The Banded Garden Spider builds an enormous web, typically around 60 cm (23.6″) in diameter. The web itself is sticky and strong, able to hold very large insects like wasps and grasshoppers. One interesting feature of their webs is the so-called “stabilimentum,” a vertical zigzag pattern made from dense silk. Researchers think this feature is a way to attract insects that the Banded Garden spider eats.

 

The female can usually be found resting at the center of the web, facing downwards. They face their webs east-to-west to take advantage of the rising and setting sun and hang in the center with their dark underside facing south. All this allows them to gain as much warmth as possible, enabling them to stay active later in the year.

 

These spiders rarely bite humans in Iran and are not aggressive. They may bite in defense if handled and bothered, but it’s unlikely that the bite would cause more discomfort than a bee sting.

 


#6. Crab Spiders

pink crab spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • On average, females measure 7–11 mm. Males are much smaller and range between lengths of 2–4 mm.
  • Colors range widely based on the specific species. However, the most common colors are pink, yellow, white, green, or brown.

 

The best places to find crab spiders in Iran are near flowers.

 

Crab spiders don’t use webs to catch their prey. Instead, they sit and wait inside flowers or other vegetation that is low to the ground for something to eat. Once a suitable victim comes by, they use their long forelegs to ambush it and make the kill. When insects are in short supply, such as during bad weather, they eat pollen and nectar to avoid starvation.

 

Lastly, many crab spiders have developed a mutualistic relationship with certain plant species since these spiders feed on and help deter harmful insects. Some plants even release an emission after being attacked that helps attract crab spiders in hopes they eat the intruder.

 


#7. Lobed Argiope

  • Argiope lobata

Identifying Characteristics:

  • The female’s abdomen has black and white stripes and appears jagged or, as many say, “lobed.”
  • Males have the same coloration but don’t have the lobes on the abdomen.
  • Females are large and grow up to 25 mm long. Males are much smaller and only measure around 6 mm.

 

It’s hard to miss a female Lobed Argiope if you come across one. In addition to being incredibly large, they have a unique body shape and coloration that make them stand out. Look for them in bushes in warm rocky areas that are dry and sunny.

 

Make sure to look at the center of their web, as you should see a zigzag stabilimenta, which is a silk-shaped web decoration. Scientists aren’t exactly sure what the purpose is of having a stabilimenta, but the dominant theory is that it helps attract insects to the web by reflecting UV light. Interestingly, it is said that after E. B. White observed a stabilimenta in a spider’s web, he was inspired to write the book Charlotte’s Web.

 

Despite its intense appearance, the venom from a Lobed Argiope bite is NOT dangerous to humans.

 


#8. Pantropical Jumping Spider

  • Plexippus paykulli

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adult females range from 9 to 12 millimeters long, while adult males range from 9 to 11 millimeters long.
  • Females are brownish gray and darker on their back and head, especially around the eyes, and have a broad tan stripe that extends onto the abdomen.
  • Males are black with a broad white central stripe and two white spots near the rear of the abdomen.

 

Pantropical Jumping Spiders are often found near buildings or other areas inhabited by humans. They cleverly spend time around light sources that attract insect prey.

 

Unlike many other spiders in Iran, Pantropical Jumping Spiders do not construct a web to catch their prey. Instead, they actively hunt, relying on their athletic abilities to find food. You may be able to find their silken retreats, though, which are often found in the corner of a ceiling or other elevated position. They use this retreat to rest and hide between hunting.

 

Although they look dangerous, Pantropical Jumping Spiders will only bite if handled roughly. Their bites are relatively harmless and, at worst, may resemble a bee sting.

 


#9. Wolf Spiders

Wolf spiders are found everywhere and in almost any habitat. I know that I see them often when flipping over rocks or logs. There are many individual species of wolf spider found in Iran, and it would be impossible to list them here, especially since most of them look very similar.

 

Interestingly, wolf spiders do not make webs to catch their prey. Instead, they wait for an insect to walk by and then chase it down! Some wolf spiders will make a burrow and then wait inside for dinner to walk by. Most individuals wander without a permanent home, and they always live and hunt alone.

 

When it comes to arachnids, these spiders have incredible eyesight. They also have retroreflective tissue in their eyes, which produces a glow if you flash a light at their faces.

 

Wolf Spiders will bite if provoked, but they do not always inject venom. Therefore, they are not considered dangerous to humans. Bite symptoms are minimal and may cause itching, swelling, and mild pain.

 


#10. Cross Orbweaver

  • Araneus diadematus

cross orbweaver

Also known as the European Garden Spider, Cross Spider, Orangie, or Pumpkin Spider.

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Colors range from extremely light yellow to very dark grey.
  • All individuals have white markings across the top of the abdomen, with four or more segments forming a cross (LOOK AT THE PICTURE ABOVE).
  • Females range in length from 6.5 to 20 mm, while males range from 5.5 to 13 mm.

 

Cross Orbweavers are one of the most well-known spiders in Iran.

 

These spiders are common in many habitats, including forest clearings, hedgerows, meadows, and gardens. They are also seen near humans, such as near buildings or lighted stairwells. Cross Orbweavers typically hang upside down at the center of their spiral webs.

 

Interestingly, when approached, they start shaking and vibrating their web in hopes of startling the perceived intruder. If this fails, the spider will typically drop straight down out of sight. Luckily, Cross Orbweavers are not aggressive and typically only bite when accidentally grabbed. Bite symptoms include mild pain, redness, and swelling that may last a few days.

 

Believe it or not, these common spiders build a new web EVERY DAY. So, yes, they eat the entire web every night and then begin construction on a new one. And lastly, if you are a male Cross Orbweaver, you must be careful with females, as you will often be eaten directly after mating!

 


#11. European Nursery Web Spider

  • Pisaura mirabilis

garden nursery spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Slender abdomen with LONG legs (the fourth one is the longest).
  • Colors range from light to reddish brown and from gray to black. A lighter stripe is visible down the middle of the back.
  • The male is between 10 and 13 mm, while the female is 12 to 15 mm.

 

These spiders are commonly found in Iran in tall grass, shrubs, or along the edges of woodlands.

 

Looking similar to wolf spiders, European Nursery Web Spiders get their name for how females protect their egg sacs. After carrying the egg sac in her mouth for a bit, she hides it under a leaf and spins a protective silk enclosure around the egg sac. From there, she sticks around to protect the babies until after their first molt. 🙂

 

European Nursery Web Spiders have a fascinating mating ritual! First, males find a gift, such as a dead insect, to offer to a prospective female. Then, after presenting the gift, the female will bite onto the gift if she is interested. From there, the male will move to deposit sperm with his pedipalps. WATCH THIS BEHAVIOR BELOW (and see if the male survives)!

 

Interestingly, during copulation, the male almost ALWAYS keeps a leg on the gift, just in case the female decides to run away with it or attack him. If the female does change her mind about mating and starts to show aggression, the male typically will pretend to play dead until she calms down, at which point he may try mating again. The things spiders will do for love!

 


#12. Cellar Spiders

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Legs are thin, long, and fragile.
  • Black and white circles wrap around the leg joints.
  • The bodies of both sexes range in size from 5-7.5 mm.

 

The best place to find cellar spiders in Iran is in your house!

 

They are commonly found living in the corners of basements and attics. You have nothing to fear, though, as even though they have venom to subdue their prey, their jaws are not strong to bite a human.

 

These spiders display an interesting behavior where individuals will join together and share an existing web. In addition, most spiders will migrate to many different webs over their lifetime. It’s been observed that cellar spiders living together in groups have smaller abdomens, which means they are probably eating less than if they were by themselves. But the trade-off is that they don’t have the energy costs of making their own web.

 

It has been very hard for researchers to figure out the lifespan of cellar spiders because of their habit of migrating to new webs!

 


#13. Harvestmen

Harvestman spider

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Colors vary; most are dull brown or dull gray, but some may be yellowish, greenish-brown, or reddish.
  • Single body region, only two eyes that do not see well.

 

The Harvestman might be the most recognizable spider in Iran!

 

I know many people find them hiding underneath rocks or logs. They are also very social so you will many times find them in large groups.

 

But here’s the crazy thing: Even though Harvestmen look just like spiders, these arachnids are technically NOT spiders! They are in the Order Opiliones and have no venom, lack fangs, and do not bite.

 

In addition, Harvestman can actually swallow solid food, which allows them to eat small insects, fungi, dead organisms, bird dung, and other fecal matter. This differs from spiders that only eat their prey after turning them into a liquid.

 

Their long legs play a vital part in their life. They use their legs for breathing, walking, smelling, and capturing prey. Males have longer legs than females, which they will groom by licking with their mouthparts. Seriously, you can watch this behavior below!

https://youtu.be/vUfMnLgYh6Q?t=18

 


Learn about other animals found in Iran:

 


Which of these spiders have you seen before in Iran?

 

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