“Don’t pick that up, you’ll get warts!”
If you’re anything like me, you heard this quite a few times growing up from a parent telling you to leave a toad alone. With their bumpy skin, staring eyes, and loud, insect-like calls, it’s understandable to be cautious around toads. But luckily, it’s a myth that toads give people warts!
Today, you will learn about the different kinds of toads in Arkansas.
A note on this list: Some of the species below are considered spadefoots, which are not technically toads. Spadefoots are a separate group of frogs that are closely related to toads. Because they are similar in so many ways, I am including them here. If you see a spadefoot, you may not even realize it’s not a true toad! I will outline the differences between toads and spadefoots later in the article.
#1. American Toad
- Anaxyrus americanus
- Adult length is 2-3 ½ inches.
- Coloring is usually brown to gray, olive, or brick red. Typically, they have patches of yellow, buff, or other light colors, with dark spots.
- The American Toad is distinctive for its many warts present all over the back and legs.
American Toads can be spotted easily in Arkansas.
The subspecies you can find here is the Dwarf American Toad, the smaller of the two.
It is one of the most common and widely known species of toad! They live in forests, prairies, and suburban backyards. American Toads are carnivorous and mainly eat insects, worms, spiders, and slugs.
American Toads have a very recognizable call. Listen for a musical trilling noise that can last for up to 30 seconds.
They like to breed in shallow water, and tadpoles have an amazing defense against predators. Their skin secretes a toxic chemical so powerful that eating one American Toad tadpole can kill a fish!
Much like their tadpoles, adult American Toads are also toxic to other animals. Even large dogs that handle or try to eat one can have discomfort or pain from contact with their milky-white secretions. This is something my dog found out the first (and last) time he played with one!
#2. Fowler’s Toad
- Anaxyrus fowleri
- Adult length is 2-3 inches.
- Coloring ranges from gray to brownish green or olive, with dark splotches on the back that have 3 or more warts in them. Adults have a pale stripe down their backs.
- The belly is usually white or yellowish, sometimes with dark spots breaking into smaller flecks.
Fowler’s Toads are fairly abundant in Arkansas.
They live in a wide range of habitats including forests, river valleys, farms, and urban and suburban gardens. They eat a variety of insects, and are very good at pest control!
Fowler’s Toad Rangemap:
The mating call of the Fowler’s Toad only lasts about 1-4 seconds. Listen for a nasal “wa-a-a-ah” sound, similar to the call of a Canada Goose.
The Fowler’s Toad is unique in that its mating call attracts both males and females.
The male toad will occasionally try to mate with another male, only realizing his mistake when he hears the other male toad’s warning chirp.
#3. Woodhouse’s Toad
- Anaxyrus woodhousii
- Adult length is 2 ½-4 inches.
- Coloring ranges from gray to yellowish or olive green.
- The belly is light tan or buff with very few dark spots located on the chest.
Woodhouse’s Toads are adaptable to many environments in southwestern Arkansas, including grasslands, deserts, floodplains, and developed areas. Interestingly, individuals that live in suburban areas will wait under street lamps to catch and eat insects attracted to the light.
Woodhouse’s Toad Rangemap:
The most striking feature of Woodhouse’s toads is their shape – they are very round and stout, with short legs that look too small to support their bodies!
Woodhouse’s Toads have a very short call that resembles a distressed sheep’s bleat.
#4. Gulf Coast Toad
- Incilius nebulifer
- Adult length is 2-4 inches.
- Coloring is dark brown to black, with deep orange flecks or spots and a light stripe running down the back.
- The head has a very prominent crest, creating a deep, noticeable valley between the eyes.
The Gulf Coast Toad lives in coastal prairies, beaches, and suburban backyards, but only in very southern Arkansas. It adapts easily to human development of its habitat and is not threatened by people or disturbed by their presence.
Gulf Coast Toad Rangemap:
It is common to see Gulf Coast Toads in Arkansas near street lamps at night. They wait for insects to be drawn to the light and then fall to the ground, making them easy prey for the toads. Flying insects, ants, beetles, and spiders are all food sources for Gulf Coast Toads.
The venom of the Gulf Coast Toad is troublesome for curious pets, whose mouths can be injured by the white, milky secretions.
Gulf Coast Toads call with a short, creaky trilling noise that lasts about 2-6 seconds. It is repeated several times in a row, with 1-4 seconds between calls.
There are a few main differences between toads in Arkansas, listed above, and Spadefoots, listed below.
Spadefoots have vertical pupils like a snake, while toads have horizontal pupils.
Their skin is much smoother and has very few or no warts.
Their back feet have bony, sharp spades that are used for burrowing into soil, sand, or loose gravel.
#5. Hurter’s Spadefoot
- Scaphiopus hurterii
- Adult length is 1 ¾-2 ¼ inches.
- Coloring is gray-green to chocolate brown, with two light stripes along its back.
- Spade is sickle-shaped and about 3 times as long as it is wide.
The Hurter’s Spadefoot prefers open areas in western Arkansas with loose, soft soil for burrowing. Savannas, open wooded areas, and mesquite scrub are all common habitats.
Hurter’s Spadefoot Rangemap:Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGS
Interestingly, tadpoles of Hurter’s Spadefoots will eat live animals.
For example, they like to eat mosquito larvae, which is a very good form of pest control!
The call of a Hurter’s Spadefoot is a short bleat, less than a half-second long. It almost sounds like someone saying, “wow!”
#6. Eastern Spadefoot
- Scaphiopus holbrookii
- Adult length is 1 ¾ – 2 ¼ inches.
- Coloring is brown to almost black, with 2 yellowish lines running down the back from the eyes.
- Spade is sickle-shaped and 3 times as long as it is wide.
The Eastern Spadefoot is found in open or forested areas with loose, gravelly soil. It uses its spades to dig into the ground, where it spends most of its life buried to avoid dry weather and temperature fluctuations.
Eastern Spadefoot Rangemap:
It’s rare to spot Eastern Spadefoots in Arkansas because they spend so much time underground.
In fact, they can go years without a breeding season, preferring to come out only after a period of extended rain and breed explosively for a short time.
Male Eastern Spadefoots call to attract females during the breeding season with a short grunting noise. Interestingly, males float in bodies of water while they call, instead of waiting on land and following a female into the water!
Do you need additional help identifying toads?
Try this field guide!
Which of these toads have you seen in Arkansas?
Leave a comment below!