“Don’t pick that up, you’ll get warts!”
If you’re anything like me, you heard this quite a few times growing up from a parent telling you to leave a toad alone. With their bumpy skin, staring eyes, and loud, insect-like calls, it’s understandable to be cautious around toads. But luckily, it’s a myth that toads give people warts!
Today, you will learn about the different kinds of toads in Florida.
A note on this list: Some of the species below are considered spadefoots, which are not technically toads. Spadefoots are a separate group of frogs that are closely related to toads. Because they are similar in so many ways, I am including them here. If you see a spadefoot, you may not even realize it’s not a true toad! I will outline the differences between toads and spadefoots later in the article.
#1. Fowler’s Toad
- Anaxyrus fowleri
- Adult length is 2-3 inches.
- Coloring ranges from gray to brownish green or olive, with dark splotches on the back that have 3 or more warts in them. Adults have a pale stripe down their backs.
- The belly is usually white or yellowish, sometimes with dark spots breaking into smaller flecks.
Fowler’s Toads live only in the panhandle of Florida.
They live in a wide range of habitats including forests, river valleys, farms, and urban and suburban gardens. They eat a variety of insects, and are very good at pest control!
Fowler’s Toad Rangemap:
The mating call of the Fowler’s Toad only lasts about 1-4 seconds. Listen for a nasal “wa-a-a-ah” sound, similar to the call of a Canada Goose.
The Fowler’s Toad is unique in that its mating call attracts both males and females.
The male toad will occasionally try to mate with another male, only realizing his mistake when he hears the other male toad’s warning chirp.
#2. Oak Toad
- Anaxyrus quercicus
- Adult length is ¾ to 1 ¼ inches.
- Coloring is light gray to black, with a prominent light-colored stripe down the middle of the back
- Red, orange, or reddish-brown warts are common
The Oak Toad is the smallest toad in Florida!
These toads are small and typically only about an inch long when fully grown. Because of their size, their best defense from predators (mostly snakes) is to hide. They spend time burrowed underground, or under leaf debris on the forest floor.
Oak Toad Rangemap:Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGS
Look for these toads in maritime forests, oak groves, savannas, flatlands, and pine woods. They are fairly common in these habitats.
The call of an Oak Toad has been compared to the chirping of a newly hatched chick. It is high-pitched and short, and can usually be heard during the mating season since males use it to attract females.
#3. Southern Toad
- Anaxyrus terrestris
- Adult length is 1 ½-3 inches.
- Usually brown, but occasionally almost black or reddish in color
- Small warts on the back, with bumpy skin on the belly and legs.
The Southern Toad and the Oak Toad are often mistaken for one another.
The differences between them are slight, but the Southern Toad is generally larger with a less pronounced or missing stripe on its back.
The Southern Toad’s habitat includes woodlands and open, grassy areas along the coast. They catch and eat many types of insects with their sticky tongues.
Southern Toad Rangemap:
One way to find a Southern Toad in Florida is to observe the ground under a street lamp in a suburban area at night. Interestingly, this species will use the light as a buffet and feed on the insects that are attracted to it!
The call of the Southern Toad is shrill and lasts about 7 seconds. It sounds like a high-pitched trilling.
There are a few main differences between toads in Florida, listed above, and Spadefoots, listed below.
Spadefoots have vertical pupils like a snake, while toads have horizontal pupils.
Their skin is much smoother and has very few or no warts.
Their back feet have bony, sharp spades that are used for burrowing into soil, sand, or loose gravel.
#4. Eastern Spadefoot
- Scaphiopus holbrookii
- Adult length is 1 ¾ – 2 ¼ inches.
- Coloring is brown to almost black, with 2 yellowish lines running down the back from the eyes.
- Spade is sickle-shaped and 3 times as long as it is wide.
The Eastern Spadefoot is found in open or forested areas with loose, gravelly soil. It uses its spades to dig into the ground, where it spends most of its life buried to avoid dry weather and temperature fluctuations.
Eastern Spadefoot Rangemap:
It’s rare to spot Eastern Spadefoots in Florida because they spend so much time underground.
In fact, they can go years without a breeding season, preferring to come out only after a period of extended rain and breed explosively for a short time.
Male Eastern Spadefoots call to attract females during the breeding season with a short grunting noise. Interestingly, males float in bodies of water while they call, instead of waiting on land and following a female into the water!
#5. Cane Toad
- Rhinella marina
- Adult length is 4-6 inches.
- Coloring is light to dark brown with dark brown spots and a light line on the back.
- Large cranial crests and toxin glands make the head appear sunken in the middle.
Cane Toads are not native to Florida.
They were introduced as a pest-control species due to their huge appetite. However, the damage done by this invasive species has outweighed any benefit in controlling insect infestations.
These toads are the largest found in North America, and can reach up to 7 inches long, and weigh 3.3 pounds!
The Cane Toad’s skin secretions are extremely toxic and can even be lethal to fully-grown dogs. In fact, they are considered dangerous to pets and native wildlife in most parts of Florida where they live.
Cane Toad Rangemap:Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGS
Another reason that Cane Toads are considered a dangerous invasive species is their prolific breeding habits. They have been known to reproduce in explosive numbers. For example, when they were introduced to the island of Oahu in Hawaii, their population expanded from 150 to 105,517 in just 17 months!
The call of the Cane Toad is a slow, low-pitched trill that is easily mistaken for insects like cicadas or crickets.
Do you need additional help identifying toads?
Try this field guide!
Which of these toads have you seen in Florida?
Leave a comment below!