31 Types of MAMMALS Found in Ontario! (2022)
Do you want to learn about the mammals that live in Ontario?
Luckily, you’ve come to the right place!
I have compiled a list of the most common and interesting mammals in Ontario, with photos, facts, and RANGE MAPS. As you will see, there are lots of species, each with different and interesting habits and traits.
And, if you want even more information about mammals, or need help with additional identification, check out this field guide!
Here are 31 types of MAMMALS found in Ontario!
#1. American Black Bear
- Ursus americanus
- Adults range from 5 to 6 feet tall and weigh 200 to 600 pounds.
- Coloration ranges from mostly black on the east coast to brown, cinnamon, or blonde in the west, and blue-gray or even creamy white in some populations.
- They have a flat back, small head, rounded ears, and non-retractable claws.
American Black Bears occupy various habitats in Ontario but generally prefer inaccessible terrain.
Black bears are sometimes considered a nuisance because they sometimes damage cornfields, honeybee hives, and berry farms. In addition, they’re easily attracted to garbage, bird feeders, and coolers. Make sure to NEVER feed them, as this can make the bear not afraid of humans, which is dangerous for both people AND the bear.
Generally, Black Bears are timid around people. Unlike grizzly bears, females with cubs rarely attack people, often just sending their cubs up a tree so that they can retreat safely.
Black Bears are naturally active in the evening and early morning but sometimes alter their activity patterns for food availability. Bears may become active during the day when garbage and other human food sources are available. Black Bears in campgrounds often develop nocturnal activity patterns.
Despite the common belief, Black Bears in Ontario don’t truly hibernate.
Instead, they enter a state of shallow torpor. In this state, their body temperature decreases, their metabolism slows, and they don’t need to wake to eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. Consequently, Black Bears must put on a heavy layer of fat in the fall to survive through winter and spring.
- Alces alces
- Adults stand about six feet at the shoulder and weigh more than 1,000 pounds.
- Their coloring is generally dark brown. Cows (females) have a light brown face and a white patch of fur beneath the tail.
- Moose have flaps of skin called dewlaps hanging from their throats, and bulls (males) grow massive antlers up to six feet across in the spring and summer.
Moose, the largest member of the deer family, only thrive in colder climates due to their massive size and insulated fur. Their hair is hollow, helping to trap air and provide maximum insulation. Their ideal habitat includes a mix of mature and young trees, which provides abundant forage.
I was surprised to learn that Moose are named for their diet! The word “moose” is an Algonquin term that means “eater of twigs.” They feed on woody material from trees. During the summer, they also eat large quantities of aquatic plants. A single moose consumes 25 to 45 pounds of vegetation per day.
Female Moose, called cows, are known to aggressively defend their young, which often have a high mortality rate until they turn one. Mothers have been known to injure or kill grizzly bears, wolves, black bears, and even people in defense of their babies. If you come across a Moose with babies, stay as far away as possible to avoid injury.
Moose are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change. Warmer winters have resulted in higher tick infestations, causing Moose to die of blood loss and anemia. Tick infestations are believed to be the main cause of Moose populations dropping 40% in the last decade.
#3. White-Tailed Deer
- Odocoileus virginianus
- Adults range from 63 to 87 inches long and stand between 31 and 39 inches tall at the shoulder.
- Their coloring is tan or brown during the summer and grayish in winter, with white on the throat, chest, and underside of the tail.
- The males have antlers which they shed in the winter.
The White-tailed Deer is the most numerous large mammal in Ontario!
White-tailed deer have an extensive range in North America and are able to thrive in various habitats, including coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests, sawgrass and hammock swamps, cactus and thorn brush deserts, brushy areas, and farmlands. You’re most likely to see White-tailed Deer around dawn and dusk when they forage.
They are also completely comfortable in suburban environments, and it’s common for them to live in small wooded parks near housing developments. The herd in my neighborhood is particularly fond of our bird feeders. They stop by for a snack almost every evening!
There aren’t many things cuter than a baby deer! The fawns are born with white spots and are able to walk almost right away. The does may leave the fawns to forage for hours at a time. While their mother is away, the fawns lay flat on the ground with their necks outstretched and are well camouflaged. The female deer always come back to the baby, so make sure not to disturb the fawn if you find one!
#4. Canada Lynx
- Lynx canadensis
- Adults measure 19 to 22 inches tall at the shoulder and weigh between 11 and 37 pounds.
- Their coloring is grayish-brown mixed with buff or pale-brown fur on the back and grayish-white or buff-white fur on the belly, legs, and feet.
- They have long legs, wide, flat paws, long black tufts on triangular ears, and a short black-tipped tail.
Canada Lynx live in cold, moist, boreal forests with snowy winters. The Lynx’s long legs and large paws allow it to hunt and travel in deep snow. This species is exclusively found in areas also occupied by its favorite prey, the Snowshoe Hare.
Lynx are primarily nocturnal and can spot prey up to 250 feet away in the dark. As a result, they are incredibly elusive and rarely seen by humans. A single Canada Lynx may cover more than five miles per day searching for food. They’re excellent swimmers and are adept at climbing trees to escape predators.
Canada Lynx have an interesting, often studied predator-prey relationship with snowshoe hares. The two species are so linked that their populations fluctuate in sync with one another. Adults may survive periods of hare scarcity by hunting other prey. However, Lynx kittens often don’t fare as well during these periods, which leads to a population decrease. When Lynx populations go down, the populations of snowshoe hares rebound, and the cycle starts over again.
- Lynx rufus
- Adults weigh 15 to 35 pounds, stand 18 to 24 inches tall, and measure 28 to 47 inches in length.
- Their coloring is buff to brown, sometimes with a reddish tint, and black and brown spots and stripes.
- They have facial ruffs, ear tufts, white spots, and short, bobbed tails.
Bobcats are solitary, elusive, and shy mammals that are rarely seen in Ontario.
These cats are highly adaptable and found in various habitats. They may be seen in residential areas. However, they generally avoid extensively cleared agricultural lands.
As carnivores, Bobcats are highly skilled hunters. They can climb, run up to 30 miles per hour, and leap high enough to grab low-flying birds. They patiently stalk their prey until they are close enough to pounce.
The largest threat to Bobcat populations is habitat fragmentation due to their large home ranges and elusive nature. However, rodenticides can also cause issues in populations when they feed on contaminated prey.
#6. Red Fox
- Vulpes vulpes
- Adults range from 18 to 35 inches in length and weigh 7 to 31 pounds.
- Their coloring ranges from pale orange or red to deep reddish-brown on their upper parts with white on their underside.
- They have black feet, a fluffy white-tipped tail, and large, pointy, black-tipped ears.
Red Foxes are arguably the most beautiful mammal in Ontario!
These canines are often thought of as cunning and smart, with good reason! They’re excellent hunters and foragers. They also cache food and are adept at relocating it. Although they prefer rabbits, fish, and berries, they won’t hesitate to eat anything readily available.
This species has a distinctive way of hunting mice and other small rodents. Once the prey has been detected, they stand motionless, waiting and listening. Then they leap high into the air and bring their forelegs straight down, pinning the rodent.
Once baby foxes, known as kits, reach adulthood, their biggest threat is humans, who hunt and trap them for fur or kill them to protect livestock, such as chickens. Red Foxes can live 10 to 12 years in captivity but average only about three years in the wild.
- Canis latrans
- Adults range in length from 3 to 4.5 feet and weigh between 15 and 44 pounds.
- Their coloring is grayish to yellow-brown on top with white underparts.
- They have a bushy tail, large, triangular ears, narrow muzzle, black nose, and yellow eyes.
Coyotes have a large range in North America and are found in various habitats, from the tropics to the tundra. Coyotes expanded their range after the near extermination of wolves and cougars by European settlers.
As with habitat, coyotes are highly versatile in their food selection. Despite being primarily carnivorous, they consume various plants, including berries, grass, and food crops. They will eat almost anything, and this extensive menu allows them to thrive in nearly every environment in Ontario!
Even if you haven’t seen one, you’ve probably heard a Coyote before! They’re extremely vocal and communicate through howls, yips, whines, and barks. These vocalizations are used to warn pack mates of danger, greet each other, and play.
Sadly, Coyotes are commonly hunted and trapped for fur and sport.
#8. Eastern Timber Wolf
- Canis lupus lycaon
- Adults are about 5.5 feet long, stand 25 inches tall, and weigh 53 to 64 pounds.
- Their coloration varies, but most have a grayish-brown mix on their upper parts and a lighter cream chest and underside.
The Eastern Timber Wolf is believed to be a subspecies of the Gray Wolf. However, their origin is still contested, and some researchers believe they are a hybrid of the Gray Wolf and the Coyote. This species is also called the Eastern Wolf, Algonquin Wolf, or Great Lakes Wolf.
The Eastern Timber Wolf chooses territory based on prey availability since they can live in most habitats. Eastern Timber Wolves are carnivorous, feed primarily on deer, moose, and beaver, and are found in areas with high densities of these animals.
Eastern Timber Wolves are highly social pack animals. Each pack holds territory, and wolves rarely venture into another pack’s range. They are monogamous and mate for life.
By 1900, this species had been extirpated from 95% of its original range. They were heavily trapped and hunted by European settlers to the point of near extinction. Although not specifically listed, Eastern Timber Wolves are protected under the Endangered Species Act as a subspecies of the Gray Wolf. These wolves’ primary threat is humans shooting or trapping them out of fear or mistaking them for coyotes.
#9. Gray Wolf
- Canis lupus
- Adults range from 3 to 5 feet long and weigh 60 to 145 pounds.
- Their coloring varies from solid white to black but is often a mix of gray and brown with light facial markings and undersides.
- They have long, bushy tails often tipped in black.
Gray Wolves are the largest living canine species! They thrive in various habitats, from tundra to woodlands, forests, grasslands, and deserts.
Within a pack, wolves communicate through body language, barking, growling, howling, and scent marking. Howling may be used for long-distance communication, to call a pack back together, or to warn intruding wolves away. The alpha male and female are typically the only ones who mate, and they do so for life.
Gray Wolves were once a widespread mammal in Ontario, but they were heavily hunted.
Several “extermination campaigns” were held, the earliest recorded in 1630, where officials gave cash rewards to anyone who killed a wolf. By 1970, only 768 wolves were remaining in the US.
Today, Gray Wolves remain extinct in most of their former range. Fortunately, endangered species protection and reintroduction efforts have been successful, most famously with the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park.
Apex predators, like wolves, are incredibly important to ecosystems. Without them, there is an overabundance of large herbivores, which typically devastates native vegetation, and increases erosion, among other things.
#10. Snow Shoe Hare
- Lepus americanus
- Adults range from 16.4 to 20.4 inches in length.
- In summer, the fur is a rusty grayish brown with a dark line down the middle of the back.
- In winter, the fur is almost entirely white except for black eyelids and blackened tips of the ears.
Snowshoe Hares are perfectly adapted to cold, snowy areas of boreal and coniferous forests. They get their name from the thick fur and large toes on their back feet, which allow them to run across the snow without sinking in. In warmer climates, Snowshoe Hares are found only in the mountains where the weather is cooler and snowy.
You’re most likely to spot this mammal in Ontario at dawn or after dusk. Snowshoe Hares are primarily herbivorous and consume various plants depending on the season. In summer, they feed on grasses and wildflowers. Then, they switch to buds, twigs, and bark from conifer trees in winter.
About 85% of leverets (baby hares) won’t make it through their first year of life. Those that do survive live up to five years in the wild. They have many predators, including squirrels who eat the young, Lynx, bobcats, mink, wolves, coyotes, and foxes. Unlike rabbits that freeze when threatened, Snowshoe Hares often rely on their speed to escape to cover.
Snowshoe Hare populations are believed to be currently stable. However, researchers believe they face a unique threat from climate change. Regardless if there is snow or not, they continue to turn white in the winter, putting them at an increased risk for predation if they are not blending into their surroundings.
#11. Eastern Cottontail
- Sylvilagus floridanus
- Adults are about 16.5 inches long and weigh up to 3 pounds.
- Their coloring is reddish-brown on the upper body with white on the underparts and tail.
- They have distinctive, large eyes and a round, fluffy tail.
These small mammals are vulnerable to many predators in Ontario, so they require a habitat with good cover. Areas with a mix of grasses, dense shrub thickets, blackberry bushes, and brush piles are ideal. Well-drained fields with dense grass cover are often used for nesting.
One of their favorite places to nest is suburban yards! So, if you notice Eastern Cottontails hanging around your property, be careful when you mow your lawn. Although rabbit nests are usually slightly below ground level, lawn equipment is still dangerous for baby rabbits and mothers.
Eastern Cottontails consume a wide range of plant materials. They can be a nuisance for gardeners by eating garden plants and flowers. However, in winter, they eat woody materials from birch, oak, dogwood, sumac, and maple trees.
If threatened, Eastern Cottontails either freeze or flush. When they flush, they will run to cover in a zig-zag pattern reaching speeds up to 18 miles per hour. If grabbed, they may give a loud distress cry to startle a predator into releasing them.
#12. Striped Skunk
- Mephitis mephitis
- Adults range from 18 to 32 inches long.
- Their coloring is black with two thick white stripes running down the back and tail and a thin white stripe from snout to forehead.
- They have a bushy black tail, small triangular heads, short ears, and black eyes.
Striped Skunks have perhaps the worst reputation of any mammal in Ontario.
They’re best known for their unusual defense system. When threatened, a Striped Skunk will first stomp its feet or handstand as a warning. If these aren’t heeded, the skunk bends its hindquarters to face the animal and releases its defensive smelly spray. The unpleasant, oily liquid can reach up to 20 feet and may cause nausea, intense pain, and temporary blindness.
Despite their foul odor, Striped Skunks provide benefits to humans in the form of pest control. In the summer, they’re largely insectivorous and feed heavily on grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, and bees. The best thing to do if you see a skunk is to give it space. They usually move on quickly when they notice humans!
Striped Skunks have stable and abundant populations. However, some local populations have been affected by rabies outbreaks. In addition, Striped Skunks face threats from severe weather, chemical exposure, and vehicle collisions.
These small mammals are typically very common in suburban areas but are rarely seen because they are nocturnal. As seen below, they often visit bird feeders to eat leftover seeds on the ground!
#13. Eastern Spotted Skunk
- Spilogale putorius
- Adults are 14 to 24 inches long.
- They have long, soft, glossy, black fur with white spots and stripes on the ears and back.
- They have a small head, short legs, and a prominent, black, long-haired tail.
Eastern Spotted Skunks are found in various open habitats, including mature forests that provide adequate cover. They may also occupy agricultural areas and use buildings, corn cribs, rock piles, haystacks, and other debris for cover and den sites.
Although their preferred food during summer is insects, Eastern Spotted Skunks are omnivores. During the fall and winter, they feed on equal amounts of plant and animal matter. They consume bees and wasps, larvae, and honey. They will also eat other insects, eggs, and small animals.
When threatened, Eastern Spotted Skunks will often assume a defensive posture in which they do a handstand on their front legs with their tail straight up and back legs spread apart in the air. They can balance and move forward in this stance while aiming specialized glands at the predator. If this display doesn’t work, then they spray a smelly deterrent.
The population of these small mammals is believed to have declined by more than 90% in Ontario since the 1940s. As a result, they are listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Contributing factors include unregulated over-hunting and trapping, habitat loss and fragmentation, widespread pesticide use, increased pressure from predators, and disease.
- Procyon lotor
- Adults are about 3 feet long and weigh between 15 and 40 pounds, though some males grow to over 60 pounds.
- Their fur is grayish-brown with 4 to 6 black rings on the tail and a black “mask” marking around the eyes.
- They have bushy tails and paws with five long, finger-like toes.
These mammals are one of the most common in Ontario!
Due to their ability to adapt to humans, Raccoons have an extensive range and are found in forests, wetlands, suburbs, parks, and cities. They generally avoid large open areas and thrive in areas with water sources, abundant food, and den sites. They make dens in rock crevices, hollow trees or logs, burrows, caves, mines, old buildings, rain sewers, or other cavities for winter shelter and birth.
As opportunistic omnivores, Raccoons will eat both plant material and animals. They feed on practically anything they can fit in their mouths. Interestingly, in areas where food is abundant individual raccoons have been known to develop specific food preferences. Raccoons in urban locations are often larger than those in unpopulated areas because they have adapted to live on human hand-outs, pet food, and trash. They also generally have the benefit of fewer predators.
The second part of the Raccoon’s Latin name, “lotor,” translates to “washer,” referring to a unique behavior they exhibit. They often pick up food items and rub them with their paws, sometimes removing unwanted parts. This gives the appearance that they’re washing their food.
Lastly, they have REALLY cute babies. 🙂
#15. Groundhog (Woodchuck)
- Marmota monax
- Adults measure between 16.3 and 26.6 inches long.
- Their coloring ranges from gray to cinnamon to dark brown, and they have white-tipped guard hairs, which give them a silvery appearance.
- They are stocky, with rounded ears and a bushy tail.
Groundhogs, also called Woodchucks or whistle pigs, occupy forests, fields, pastures, and hedgerows. They thrive near humans, and agriculture operations have increased their food access. Groundhogs construct dens; most have a summer den near food sources and a winter den near protective cover.
In the fall, Groundhogs store large amounts of fat for hibernation. They are “true hibernators,” meaning that their body goes dormant for the entire season. During this time, their heart rate and body temperature fall dramatically until they leave hibernation in late winter or early spring.
Unfortunately, these mammals can become a nuisance in Ontario to farmers, gardeners, and homeowners due to their tunneling behavior. Groundhogs are most affected by vehicle collisions, hunting, trapping, and predation from various species, including domestic dogs.
#16. River Otter
- Lontra canadensis
- Adults grow 3 to 4 feet in length, including their tails.
- Their thick, protective fur is dark brown on the body and lighter brown on the belly and face.
- They have short legs with webbed feet, a long narrow body, and a long, muscular tail.
North American River Otters are semi-aquatic mammals that have an extensive range. They’re found in lakes, rivers, marshes, and estuaries in cold and warm climates. River Otters create dens along the shore that have entrances underwater. They forage at night but can be seen at all times of the day.
River Otters are lively, playful animals and are sometimes even spotted sliding around in the mud or snow. These activities help them to form social bonds and practice hunting techniques.
They use their long whiskers to detect prey in dark water, often grabbing a meal before the victim knows what’s happening. River otters are excellent swimmers, divers, and quick runners. They can stay underwater for up to eight minutes and run 18 miles per hour.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, river otters were heavily trapped and hunted for their fur to near extinction. Conservation and reintroduction efforts are helping many populations to recover; however, some northern populations are still considered vulnerable or imperiled. River Otters continue to face threats from water pollution and habitat destruction.
#17. Common Muskrat
- Ondatra zibethicus
- Adults range from 16 to 25 inches in total length and weigh 1.5 to 4 pounds.
- Their coloring is blackish-brown on the back, lighter brown with a reddish tinge on the sides, and pale on the underside.
- They have short front legs with small feet, strong hind legs with large, partially-webbed feet, and a vertically flattened, scaly tail.
Muskrats are one of just a few semi-aquatic mammals in Ontario.
They occupy marshes, streams, ponds, rivers, and lakes with fresh and brackish water. This species lives in dens built into riverbanks or lodges they construct from sticks. Muskrats construct homes with underwater tunnels and dry, above-water chambers. Interestingly, they will sometimes move into occupied beaver lodges and cohabitate with them.
Being mostly omnivores, Muskrats typically feed on aquatic plants such as cattails, water lilies, and duckweeds. But when food is scarce, they sometimes eat other animals, including crayfish, snails, frogs, insects, and fish.
Muskrats are an important part of the ecosystem in Ontario, helping keep areas of marshes open and creating essential habitats for waterfowl. Unfortunately, this species was introduced to Europe as fur stock and has become invasive in many countries. They cause issues by burrowing into dikes and levees and causing flooding.
#18. Eastern Gray Squirrel
- Sciurus carolinensis
- Adults are 16.6 – 21.6 inches (42 – 55 cm) long.
- Their coloring is gray-brown on the back and sides, with a white belly.
- This species has an extremely bushy tail, pointed ears, and a narrow face.
Many people battle with these small mammals in Ontario at their bird feeders!
Eastern Gray Squirrels eat various foods, but naturally, their favorites are nuts, such as acorns, walnuts, and hazelnuts. As winter approaches, Eastern Gray Squirrels start hiding food in many locations, which provides them nutrition through the colder months. They hide more food than they will ever find, and some extra seeds will eventually grow into new trees. Who knew that squirrels could play such an important role in seed dispersal?
Eastern Gray Squirrel Range Map
Many people have thrown up their hands in defeat as they try to stop these acrobatic mammals from taking over the bird feeders in their backyard. Eastern Gray Squirrels LOVE birdseed and are relentless when they know an easy meal awaits inside a feeder. Their favorite foods include sunflower seeds, peanuts, and corn.
- RELATED: The 4 Types of Squirrels in Ontario!
Some gray squirrels are black! Yes, I realize it’s strange that some Eastern Gray Squirrels have black fur, but it’s true! These black squirrels appear as a morph, and genetically speaking, it’s believed to result from a faulty pigment gene. No one is sure why the black morph evolved, but several theories have been offered. For example, some scientists think it may be a selective advantage for squirrels that inhabit the northern ranges to help them absorb heat.
- RELATED: Watch my LIVE animal cameras on Youtube! (You may see an Eastern Gray Squirrel right now in my backyard)
#19. American Red Squirrel
- Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
- Adults are 11- 14 inches (28 – 35.5 cm) long.
- Their coloring is reddish-brown with a white belly.
- These tiny squirrels have inquisitive-looking faces with bright white rings around their eyes.
The American Red Squirrel is easy to identify compared to other squirrel species. As the name suggests, they have a reddish color and white belly that makes them easy to distinguish. Size-wise, they are both MUCH smaller than both gray and fox squirrels but larger than chipmunks.
American Red Squirrel Range Map
These small mammals are primarily found in Ontario in coniferous forests due to their diet, which consists of seeds from evergreen trees. But they are equally at home in deciduous forests, backyards, parks, and urban areas, where they adjust their diet to eat foods such as berries, bird eggs, acorns, hazelnuts, mushrooms, mice, and sunflower seeds from backyard bird feeding stations. American Red Squirrels even have a sweet tooth and are known to tap maple trees so they can eat the sugar from the sap!
These squirrels are BEST known for their aggressive personality!
Press PLAY to hear the sounds of an American Red Squirrel!
When I go hiking, I almost always see at least one American Red Squirrel, as they are not shy creatures. As soon as I’m spotted, the squirrel typically runs up a tree to sit and starts making loud chattering noises to alert the whole forest to my presence!
#20. Eastern Chipmunk
- Tamias striatus
- Adults average about 9.6 inches, including their tail.
- They are reddish-brown on the back and white on the undersides, with two white stripes on each side and one black stripe down the middle of the back.
- They have pouched cheeks for carrying food, prominent eyes, and rounded ears.
These vocal animals got their name from the “chip-chip” sound they make. Despite their small size, Eastern Chipmunks construct burrows of interconnecting tunnels between 12 and 30 feet long! The burrows have many chambers that provide shelter from predators, a place to birth young, and a place to store food they cache for winter.
Being mostly omnivorous, Chipmunks primarily eat nuts, seeds, acorns, mushrooms, and fruit. However, they may also eat insects, snails, bird eggs, and small mammals like young mice.
Chipmunks are diurnal, meaning they sleep in their burrow at night and spend the day foraging and catching food. You’re most likely to see them during early fall when they cache as much food as possible for winter. They spend the winter in their burrow, often in deep sleep though not true hibernation. They may wake every couple of weeks to eat.
#21. Least Chipmunk
- Tamias minimus
- Adults range from 7.3 to 8.7 inches long, including their tails, and weigh between 1.5 and 1.9 ounces.
- Their upper parts are orangish-brown with dark and light stripes down their back and sides, and their underparts are grayish-white.
- They have dark and light stripes on their face, a long bushy tail, and pouched cheeks.
As their name suggests, Least Chipmunks are the smallest of all chipmunk species! These little mammals can be found in boreal and temperate forests in Ontario.
Least Chipmunks are omnivores that are only active during the day. Interestingly, this species forages in a specific area until the food is depleted, then they mark that area with urine and avoid it until more food is available.
Least Chipmunks construct burrows for sleeping, nesting, caching food, and protection from predators. They also spend winters in these burrows. Least Chipmunks don’t truly hibernate, but they enter a torpor state in their burrow during the winter, waking only occasionally to eat.
#22. Brown Rat
- Rattus norvegicus
Look for Brown Rats anywhere people are living, particularly in urban environments. They’re best known for living in sewer tunnels and subway systems, scavenging food from the trash.
Believe it or not, this small mammal isn’t native to Ontario. It’s thought to have originated in China and Mongolia.
Although many people find rats off-putting, others keep a sub-species of Brown Rats as pets. This subspecies, called the Fancy Rat, was bred specifically for the pet trade. Besides companion animals, rats can be trained for many jobs to assist humans, like detecting gunpowder for forensic teams and providing therapy support.
It’s a misconception that Brown Rats spread bubonic plague. In actuality, it’s more commonly spread through ground squirrels! Regardless, they can transmit infections of many kinds, as their blood can carry several diseases.
#23. Black Rat
- Rattus rattus
Interestingly, this small mammal is not native to Ontario.
Instead, it’s thought that the Black Rat came from India and was transported to North America on cargo ships. It’s now so widespread that it’s no longer considered a foreign species.
It’s considered a pest in the agricultural market because it feeds on various crops. Like other rodents, Black Rats can carry pathogens in their bodies. While they may not appear sick, they can spread infections like toxoplasmosis, typhus, and bubonic plague.
In many areas where the Black Rat was once the dominant species, the Brown Rat has taken over. Black Rats are slightly smaller and reproduce less often, two of the reasons this species isn’t as widespread as Brown Rats.
#24. House Mouse
- Mus musculus
Few mammals in Ontario thrive around people as well as the House Mouse!
House Mice have the characteristic large ears, thin tails, and tiny bodies of a typical “mouse.” They do incredibly well in highly populated areas, and there are now more semi-tame populations than wild.
House Mice are the most common species to find inside your home because they’re adaptable to human presence. They readily eat food scraps, build their nests in walls or dark attics and basements, and spend most of their time hidden from view. You’ve likely shared your home with a House Mouse at least once over the years. Although most people would prefer not to have them, they aren’t the worst roommates!
Like their eating habits, they are adaptable in their social behavior. House Mice with an excess of food, like those living in buildings, form a hierarchy with leaders and followers. However, in the wild, where food is less plentiful, females aggressively protect their territory from one another.
#25. White-footed Deer Mouse
- Peromyscus leucopus
Like most other mice, this species is a vector, which means it carries and spreads disease.
Many rodents can carry disease-causing pathogens without getting sick, making them ideal carriers for these germs. For example, White-footed Mice transmit hantavirus and the bacteria that cause Lyme disease.
White-footed Deer Mice are one of the most likely species you will find in your attic, garage, or basement. Even though they can spread disease, contamination isn’t very common in homes.
This is the species I’ve found in my house, and I use a live trap and release them in a field a few miles away. Here’s the trap that I use!
#26. American Badger
- Taxidea taxus
- Adults range from 23.5 to 29.5 inches in length and weigh between 14 and 19 pounds.
- Their long fur is brown or black with white stripes on their cheeks and one white stripe running from their nose to the back of their head.
- They have a large flat body, short, powerful legs, triangular face, small ears, and long sharp claws.
The American Badger primarily feeds on small burrowing mammals in Ontario like ground squirrels, rats, gophers, and mice. They dig their prey out of burrows with their strong claws or enter the burrow and wait for the creature to return. Interestingly, Coyotes regularly stand nearby and wait to catch animals fleeing from badgers.
American Badgers create their own burrows as well. They regularly dig upwards of 32 feet of tunnels that reach 10 feet below the surface, with enlarged chambers for sleeping, storing food, and giving birth. Their burrows have one entrance with a pile of dirt next to it. If threatened, they back into their burrow, bare their teeth and claws or plug the burrow’s entrance with dirt.
When attacked outside the burrow, badgers will hiss, growl, squeal, and snarl. They may also release a foul-smelling musk to help deter predators. Their thick, muscular neck, loose skin, and thick fur allow them time to turn and bite or claw their attacker.
#27. American Beaver
- Castor canadensis
- Adults are 29 to 35 inches long, with a tail length between 7.9 and 13.8 inches, and weigh between 24 and 71 pounds.
- They have a dark brown coat of waterproof fur, webbed feet, and a large, flat, black tail.
- Their large, continuously growing incisors (teeth) are orange due to thick layers of enamel.
The American Beaver is North America’s largest rodent!
These incredible mammals are known as ecosystem engineers, meaning they’re one of just a few species that actively work to alter their habitat. They do so by building dams with trees, branches, and mud. Beavers use the dams for shelter, food storage areas, and dens for raising young.
Ponds created by beaver dams serve as important habitats for many types of wildlife. They also help reduce erosion and slow water movement, promoting moisture in drought-prone areas. Especially in northern climates, the water in the pond needs to be deep enough that it doesn’t freeze solid, allowing the beavers to swim under the ice all winter.
Beavers are excellent swimmers and can stay submerged for up to 15 minutes. They spend as much time as possible in the water, where they are less vulnerable to predators. This species uses its large tail to slap the water to signal danger to other beavers, as well as fat storage.
#28. Virginia Opossum
- Didelphis virginiana
- Adults measure 13 to 37 inches in length.
- Their fur is whitish underneath and dull grayish-brown on top though it varies throughout their range.
- They have white faces, long, hairless tails, and feet with opposable thumbs.
The Virginia Opossum is the only marsupial mammal in Ontario!
They occupy various habitats but generally prefer forests and thickets near a source of water. This species adapts well to human presence, so you’re likely to find them in rural, suburban, and urban environments, including your yard.
Although many people consider the Virginia Opossum a pest, they provide an important service to humans! Insects, including ticks, are a staple food for opossums. They’re incredibly good at grooming and eat 95% of ticks that try to feed on them, up to 5,000 ticks in a single season. So, the next time you’re worried that an opossum is roaming your yard, remember they reduce your chances of tickborne illness.
This species is known to play dead or “play possum,” a unique tactic they’ve become known for. They go into a catatonic state, drool, and exude a noxious substance from their anal glands, feigning death.
As marsupials, Opossums give birth to relatively undeveloped young, which they carry in a pouch on their belly until they’re more developed. The young opossums are only about the size of a kidney bean, but they crawl into the pouch without assistance. Even though litters can be made up of 25 babies, only a small percentage survive.
#29. North American Porcupine
- Erethizon dorsatum
- Adults range from 2 to 3 feet in length and weigh about 20 pounds.
- Their fur ranges in color from brownish-yellow to black, with white highlights on their quills.
- Porcupines are covered in approximately 30,000 hollow quills.
While North American Porcupines generally spend much of their time on the ground, they can also climb trees, using their tail for support. But they aren’t the best climbers; one study found that 30% of the porcupines had healed fractures from falling from trees.
They’re well known for their sharp quills used for defense. When threatened, porcupines draw up the skin of their back, bristling so that the quills face all directions. The porcupine keeps its back to the predator and moves its tail back and forth. But, despite their effective defense, porcupines are still preyed on by fisher cats, coyotes, wolverines, and other predators that have adapted to hunting them.
Contrary to popular belief, porcupines can’t throw quills at their attacker! 🙂
#30. American Mink
- Neogale vison
- Adults measure between 12 and 18 inches long, have 6 to 10-inch tails, and weigh between 1 to 3 pounds.
- They have a long sleek body, short stubby legs, long neck, small ears and eyes, slightly webbed feet, and a long thick tail.
- Their fur is brown to black, soft, thick, and covered with oily guard hairs that make it waterproof.
The small mammals can be found in Ontario in forested areas near large water sources. Their dens are located on river banks, under logs and tree stumps, or at the base of trees. Their dens are always close to water.
Minks are voracious predators and feed on surprisingly large prey. Believe it or not, they can eat fish up to 12 inches long and kill coastal birds like seagulls and cormorants by drowning them. Their slightly webbed feet and streamlined bodies are powerful in the water, and they can swim for up to three hours without stopping! While they’re rarely far from water, they hunt on land and can climb trees.
Despite this species being regularly hunted for its fur, its population is stable. However, scientists have expressed concern about the effect of escaped domesticated Minks on wild populations. Released Minks can cause territorial issues with wild populations and may introduce weaker genetics by breeding with wild individuals.
Check out the video of a mink above!
#31. Big Brown Bat
- Eptesicus fuscus
- Larger-sized bat with around a 12-inch wingspan.
- Brown fur with black ears, wings, and feet. Wings are hairless.
These flying mammals are widespread in Ontario.
If you know where to look, you’ll find Big Brown Bats inside caves, tunnels, or other human structures.
Big Brown Bat Range Map
This nocturnal bat primarily eats insects, especially ones that fly at night. However, their preference is to eat beetles. The Cucumber Beetle is their favorite, which benefits farmers because these insects are terrible pests for agriculture. Many farmers in Ontario even use bat boxes to attract Big Brown Bats to their property!
Though rabies is common in all bats, research has shown the disease is rarer in this species. The reason for this fact is that many Big Brown Bats have immunity to rabies. Interestingly, researchers discovered that these rabies antibodies get passed down from generation to generation!
Which types of mammals have YOU seen in Ontario?
Let us know in the comments!