Did you find a salamander in Canada?
First, congratulations! Although these amphibians are widespread, they can be challenging to locate. The best places to look are in wet habitats under rocks and in creekbeds. Honestly, looking for salamanders is a really fun experience!
Below you will find a list of the most common and interesting salamanders that live in Canada. You will find detailed pictures, along with range maps for each species to help with your identification!
10 Types of Salamanders in Canada:
#1. Eastern Newt
- Notophthalmus viridescens
- Larvae are aquatic and have smooth, olive green skin, narrow, fin-like tails, and feathery gills.
- Juveniles are terrestrial and have rough, orangish-red skin with darker spots outlined in black.
- Adults have slimy, dull olive-green skin, dull yellow undersides, darker black-rimmed spots, and a blade-like tail.
Eastern Newts have the most complicated life cycle of any salamander in Canada!
When they’re first hatched, they spend all of their time in the water. This larval stage lasts for two to five months. After that, they metamorphose into juvenile Eastern Newts.
They live in terrestrial forest habitats for two to seven years during their juvenile stage. Even though they generally remain hidden under moist leaf litter and debris, you may see them moving about on rainy days and nights, foraging insects, worms, and spiders. This is the stage of life you’re most likely to see an Eastern Newt. If you spot one, be careful – they have glands that secrete a potent neurotoxin when they’re threatened.
Finally, Eastern Newts will migrate back to a water source and metamorphose into aquatic adults, where they eat small amphibians, fish, and worms. They can live up to 15 years and spend the rest of their lives in this aquatic form.
Interestingly, Eastern Newts are known for their homing ability, which allows them to travel to and from their breeding ground. Though scientists are unsure of the exact mechanism, the Eastern Newt likely uses magnetic orientation to find its way!
#2. Spotted Salamander
- Ambystoma maculatum
- Adults are 15-25 centimeters long with wide snouts. They are typically black but may also be bluish-black, dark grey, dark green, or dark brown. Their underside is slate gray or pale pink.
- They have two uneven rows of spots down their back, from just behind their eyes to the tip of their tail. Spots on the head are orange and fade to yellow further down the body and tail.
- Larvae are light brown or greenish-yellow with small darker spots, external gills, and fin-like tails.
The Spotted Salamander is found primarily in hardwood forests with vernal pools, which are temporary ponds created by spring rain. Like many salamanders in Canada, they require vernal pools for breeding because the fish in permanent lakes and ponds would eat all their eggs and larvae.
These salamanders are fossorial, meaning they spend most of their time underground. Spotted Salamanders are typically only seen above ground just after heavy rain, so you’ll need to get a little muddy to find one! They go dormant underground during the winter months and don’t come out until the breeding season between March and May.
The Spotted Salamander’s eggs are truly incredible. The embryos can host algae inside their eggs, and they are the only vertebrate known to do so. The embryos and algae have a symbiotic relationship. The algae have a suitable habitat, and in return, they produce the oxygen necessary for the embryos to grow and thrive.
#3. Eastern Tiger Salamander
- Ambystoma tigrinum
- Adults range from 15-20 centimeters in length.
- Their coloring is dark gray, brown, or black with brownish-yellow to greenish-yellow markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
- This species has a thick body and neck, short snout, strong legs, and a lengthy tail.
This species is one of the largest terrestrial salamanders in Canada.
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground in woods, grasslands, or marshes. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights.
Their diet is primarily made up of insects, worms, slugs, and frogs. However, if there’s a prey shortage, they become much less picky. They’ve been observed feeding on baby snakes, newborn mice, and small salamanders of other species. They will even cannibalize their own young in times of low food supply!
Eastern Tiger Salamanders are very long-lived and have been known to reach 16 years of age in the wild. However, individuals in captivity can live much longer, up to 25 years.
Although Eastern and Western Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, because they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Secondly, Eastern Tiger Salamanders are much larger and have a black patch on their snout.
#4. Western Tiger Salamander
- Ambystoma mavortium
- Adults range from 7-17 centimeters in length.
- Their coloring is greenish-yellow with black markings, ranging from large spots and stripes to small irregular shapes on the head, back, and tail.
- This species has a thick body and neck and a short snout.
Western Tiger Salamanders are secretive and spend much of their time underground. You’re most likely to see them moving about and foraging on rainy nights. Their favorite hiding spots are burrows, which they can make themselves or borrow from other animals.
Interestingly, Western Tiger Salamanders have four distinct morphs as adults. Scientists classify them by whether they are aquatic or terrestrial, and also by what they eat. For example, a typical Western Tiger Salamander eats insects and frogs, breathes above water, and spends time on land.
However, there is a terrestrial morph that cannibalizes other Western Tiger Salamanders! In addition, there are cannibalistic and non-cannibalistic aquatic morphs that have gills and breathe underwater.
The aquatic individuals are called paedomorphs, and while they are mature and able to reproduce normally, they retain a lot of the features of larval Western Tiger Salamanders. The most obvious feature is their frilly, long gills!
Although Western and Eastern Tiger Salamanders are closely related, it would be unusual to mix up these two species. First, because they rarely share the same range and aren’t often seen together. Second, Western Tiger Salamanders are smaller and lack the black snout patch that Eastern Tiger Salamanders have.
#5. Common Mudpuppy
- Necturus maculosus
- Adults range from 20-48 centimeters in length.
- This species is rusty brown to gray or black with scattered bluish-black or black spots, which sometimes merge to form stripes. The underside is whitish and may also have bluish-black spots.
- The large, bushy, red, or maroon external gills behind the flattened head make this species easy to identify.
Common Mudpuppies are among the most well-known salamanders in Canada.
These LARGE salamanders can be found in nearly any body of water, including lakes, reservoirs, ditches, and rivers. They are secretive and require habitats with lots of cover, such as boulder piles, submerged logs, tree roots, or vegetation.
Common Mudpuppies are nocturnal and spend their days hiding under rocks. They’re active at night and hunt by walking along the lake or river bottom, but they can also swim. These opportunistic feeders eat whatever aquatic organisms they can catch, including insect larvae, small fish, fish eggs, aquatic worms, snails, and even carrion.
In the spring, when water temperatures don’t fluctuate as much, Common Mudpuppies spend time in shallow water. However, they have been reported in water as deep as 100 feet during the summer and winter!
#6. Red-backed Salamander
- Plethodon cinereus
- Adults range from 5-13 centimeters in length.
- Adults can occur in two color phases: the “lead-back” is consistent gray or black, and the “red-back” has an orange to red stripe down the back and tail.
- All adults have mottled white and black undersides and five toes on their hind feet.
Unlike other salamanders in Canada, Red-Backed Salamanders don’t have lungs OR gills! Instead, they “breathe” with their thin skin, absorbing oxygen through moisture. This unique trait means they must stay moist to survive.
Red-backed Salamanders are typically found beneath leaf litter, logs, bark, rocks, or burrows in deciduous forests. They have a low tolerance for dry weather, and typically you’ll only see them during or after rainfall. In the winter, they hibernate underground.
These salamanders feed on invertebrates, including spiders, snails, worms, and other small insects. Researchers studying the diets of Red-Backed Salamanders found that individuals with red coloring had a higher-quality, more varied diet than those with gray coloring.
The different phases are also believed to have different methods of predator evasion. For example, the “lead-back” phase salamanders tend to run from predators, while the “red-back” phase will freeze. Both phases of the Red-backed Salamander may also drop all or part of their tail to escape a predator. Eventually, the tail will grow back, but duller in color.
#7. Northern Dusky Salamander
- Desmognathus fuscus
- Adults typically range from 6-12 centimeters in length though individuals up to 14 centimeters have been recorded.
- Their coloring ranges from brown or reddish-brown to gray or olive, with a whitish belly, dark speckles, and somewhat lighter tail.
- The hind limbs are larger than the front limbs, and males are usually longer than females.
Northern Dusky Salamanders are typically found in Canada in moist woodlands close to running water, such as hillside streams. They hide under stones, logs, and leaf litter at the water’s edge. They’re frequently found under rocks or logs partially submerged in streams.
These nocturnal salamanders leave their cover to forage at night. They may be active from dusk until dawn on damp or rainy nights. Interestingly, they have a small range and may only travel a couple of meters away from their territory searching for food.
Northern Dusky Salamanders feed on various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. However, they don’t prefer specific prey and eat whatever is abundant, including crustaceans, earthworms, spiders, insect larvae, ants, centipedes, moths, and mites.
#8. Northern Two-lined Salamander
- Eurycea bislineata
- Adults typically range from 8-9 centimeters in length though individuals up to 12 centimeters have been identified.
- Their coloring is bright greenish-yellow to orange-yellow and sometimes brown, with flanks that are mottled grayish or brown, a line of small black flecks down the middle of their back, and two black stripes that run down their back from their eyes and break up at the base of their tail.
- This species has five toes on the hind feet.
Look for Northern Two-Lined Salamanders in Canada in moist forests near rocky streams. They’re occasionally found near wooded shorelines.
These salamanders are opportunistic predators that will feed on any invertebrates that come across their path. They eat beetles, roaches, springtails, earthworms, and snails.
Northern Two-Lined Salamanders are preyed on by several species, but their response to predators varies. For instance, when attacked by birds or mammals, they raise and undulate their tails to appear larger and threatening. However, when snakes attack them, they typically freeze or flee. Dropping all or part of their tail to escape predators is common.
#9. Blue-spotted Salamander
- Ambystoma laterale
- Adults range from 10-14 centimeters in length.
- Their coloring is bluish-black with blue and white flecks on the back and a lighter underside.
- They have four toes on the front feet and five toes on the hind feet.
This species is the most beautiful salamander in Canada!
You can find Blue-Spotted Salamanders in moist deciduous forests, swampy woodlands, and occasionally in coniferous forests and fields. Look for them under logs, rocks, leaf litter, or other organic debris. They’re generally only seen on damp, rainy nights.
Blue-spotted Salamanders have an interesting defense against predators. When threatened, they curl their bodies and wriggle to attract a predator to their tail. Then, they secrete a sticky, foul-tasting liquid into the predator’s mouth. Once they get a mouthful, most predators learn to leave this salamander alone!
Blue-spotted Salamanders breed in vernal pools to protect their young from becoming prey. These pools dry out in the summer, so they don’t support larger predators, making them a safe place for eggs to incubate.
#10. Northern Slimy Salamander
- Plethodon glutinosus
- Adults typically range from 12-16 centimeters in length though individuals up to 20 centimeters have been recorded.
- Their coloring is black or blackish-blue with numerous silver, silvery-white, or gold spots all over their body.
Northern Slimy Salamanders spend most of their time in moist soil or leaf litter beneath rocks, rotting logs, or other debris near the water. Occasionally they use other animals’ burrows. In cold locations, Northern Slimy Salamanders hibernate below the soil in winter.
They are a territorial species and will defend their territory aggressively. Their name comes from the slimy secretions they give off when threatened by predators. The slime sticks like glue, affecting predators’ movement. Northern Slimy Salamanders may also vocalize when physically disturbed.
Northern Slimy Salamanders are nocturnal. Look for them on moist nights when they feed on ants, bees, wasps, spiders, and insects.
Which of these salamanders have you seen in Canada?
Tell us about it in the comments!
Also, if you enjoy this article, make sure to check out these other guides about herps! As you may have guessed, “herps” refers to herpetology, the study of reptiles and amphibians like salamanders.