“Don’t pick that up, you’ll get warts!”
If you’re anything like me, you heard this quite a few times growing up from a parent telling you to leave a toad alone. With their bumpy skin, staring eyes, and loud, insect-like calls, it’s understandable to be cautious around toads. But luckily, it’s a myth that toads give people warts!
Today, you will learn about the different kinds of toads in Nevada.
A note on this list: Some of the species below are considered spadefoots, which are not technically toads. Spadefoots are a separate group of frogs that are closely related to toads. Because they are similar in so many ways, I am including them here. If you see a spadefoot, you may not even realize it’s not a true toad! I will outline the differences between toads and spadefoots later in the article.
#1. Western Toad
- Anaxyrus boreas
- Adult length is 2-5 inches.
- Coloring can range from yellowish, tan, gray, or green with a pale stripe along the back. The Western Toad also has dark blotches with rust-colored edges and warts.
- Males have smoother, less blotchy skin than females.
As its name suggests, the Western Toad lives in the western part of the continent. It has a wide range of habitats, including desert streams and springs, forests, lakes and rivers, and backyard gardens with pools nearby.
Western Toad Rangemap:
Female Western Toads can lay up to 16,000 eggs at a time! They lay their eggs in long strings in shallow water.
Unlike many other toads in Nevada, Western Toads don’t often hop!
Instead, they walk, picking up 1 or 2 legs at a time. You can see this unique movement below!
The Western Toad has a distinctive call that can be described as a high-pitched chirrup or chattering. Choruses of Western Toads tend to sound like flocks of geese in the distance.
Nevada Cryptic Toad Species: New Discoveries!
Three COMPLETELY NEW species of toad have recently been found in the Great Basin area of Nevada.
It’s rare to find even one new species of amphibian, let alone three – especially in one of the driest places on earth!
All three of the cryptic species are about 2 inches long when fully grown. They prefer to live in marshes and wetlands created by hot springs.
Dixie Valley Toad
Gold Flecks on the olive skin distinguish the Dixie Valley Toad from other similar species. Its range is the Dixie Valley Playa, a wetland area fed by hot springs. The total area of the wetland is less than 4 square miles! Plans to build a geothermal plant have imperiled the species, leading to its endangered classification.
Railroad Valley Toad
The Railroad Valley Toad is found in the Tonopah Basin in the central Nevada desert. Its coloring is gray with olive and green spots. Little is known about this toad besides its limited range.
Hot Creek Toad
Hot Creek Mountain Range is the only place to find the Hot Creek Toad. It has a distinct light line along its spine, which sets it apart from other similar species.
The three species were previously thought to be Western Toad variants. The biological differences discovered through genetic testing and observation have revealed that they are completely new, separate species.
#2. Amargosa Toad
- Anaxyrus nelsoni
- Adult length is 2 to 4.5 inches.
- Coloring is beige or tan with brown and black splotches, and a well-defined lighter stripe on the back.
- A narrow head, long snout, and very short limbs set this toad apart from most others.
The Amargosa Toad is ONLY found in a 10-mile stretch of the Amargosa River Valley in Nevada!
It is on the verge of extinction, and is one of the most threatened species of toad in North America. In 1994, a study by The Nature Conservancy recorded only 30 adult Amargosa Toads left in the wild. The number has since increased to about 2500, but not enough to consider this species safe.
#3. Great Plains Toad
- Anaxyrus cognatus
- Adult length is 2-4 ½ inches.
- Coloring is pale white to tan or olive with large, dark-colored pairs of blotches down the back. Lighter tan or white belly.
- A crest on the head forms a “V” shape from the snout, moving outward on the head toward the back.
Great Plains Toads are found in southern Nevada living in temporary shallow pools, quiet streams, marshes, or irrigation ditches. They are most common in grasslands but also can be found in desert brush and woodland areas.
Great Plains Toad Rangemap:
There are only a few weeks out of the year that are suitable for the Great Plains Toad to feed and reproduce. Amazingly, they spend the rest of the year mostly dormant in underground burrows made by other animals.
Symmetrical dark splotches running down its back make the Great Plains Toad one of the easier toads to see, but you will probably hear one nearby long before you can spot it. Its call can last more than 50 seconds, and is similar to a jackhammer!
When large groups of Great Plains Toads are calling, the sound can be near-deafening.
#4. Red-Spotted Toad
- Anaxyrus punctatus
- Adult Length is 1.5 – 3 inches.
- The coloring of the Red-Spotted Toad is light gray, olive, or red-brown, with distinctive red or orange warts. The belly is white or buff.
- Red-orange warts are numerous and cover the entire top of the body including legs and feet.
The Red-Spotted Toad is very recognizable in southern Nevada.
Just look for the many red or orange warts set against the pale coloring of the rest of its skin! They can be hard to find though because they are mostly nocturnal, spending their days in rock crevices or underneath plant debris.
Red-Spotted Toad Rangemap:Credit: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior/USGS
Red-Spotted Toads can survive losing up to 40% of the water in their bodies!
They commonly live around rocky outcroppings with temporary water from rain-fed streams or underground springs.
The call of a Red-Spotted Toad is a high-pitched trilling that lasts about 10 seconds.
#5. Woodhouse’s Toad
- Anaxyrus woodhousii
- Adult length is 2 ½-4 inches.
- Coloring ranges from gray to yellowish or olive green.
- The belly is light tan or buff with very few dark spots located on the chest.
Woodhouse’s Toads are adaptable to many environments in Nevada, including grasslands, deserts, floodplains, and developed areas, but only lives in the southern tip of the state. Interestingly, individuals that live in suburban areas will wait under street lamps to catch and eat insects attracted to the light.
Woodhouse’s Toad Rangemap:
The most striking feature of Woodhouse’s toads is their shape – they are very round and stout, with short legs that look too small to support their bodies!
Woodhouse’s Toads have a very short call that resembles a distressed sheep’s bleat.
Though not as common, the Arizona Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus) is a close relative of the Woodhouse’s Toad that lives in the United States. It is about the same size, with an average length of 2-3 inches. Its coloring is lighter green and has less dark spotting than the Woodhouse’s Toad. The Arizona Toad’s preferred habitat is very specific; it requires quiet, slow-moving sandy-bottomed streams or shallow pools with woodland forests nearby. The Arizona Toad population throughout the United States is declining due to habitat development and interbreeding with the Woodhouse’s Toad.
There are a few main differences between toads in Nevada, listed above, and Spadefoots, listed below.
Spadefoots have vertical pupils like a snake, while toads have horizontal pupils.
Their skin is much smoother and has very few or no warts.
Their back feet have bony, sharp spades that are used for burrowing into soil, sand, or loose gravel.
#6. Great Basin Spadefoot
- Spea intermontana
- Adult length is 1 ½-2 ½ inches.
- Coloring is gray, olive, or brown with an hourglass-shaped marking on the back.
- The spade on the hindfoot is wedge-shaped.
In Nevada, it is common to find Great Basin Spadefoots in sagebrush flats or woodland areas. They can also be found in spruce and fir forests at higher elevations.
Great Basin Spadefoot Rangemap:
Great Basin Spadefoots breed after spring and summer rains, in temporary and permanent water including lakes, streams, and drainage ditches.
Interestingly, the Great Basin Spadefoot emits a peanut-smelling odor when handled!
The call of the Great Basin Spadefoot is a low-pitched and hoarse sound, similar to the quacking of a duck. It lasts about a second and is repeated over and over as the male calls to attract females during mating.
Do you need additional help identifying toads?
Try this field guide!
Which of these toads have you seen in Nevada?
Leave a comment below!