What kinds of warblers can you find in Utah?
I’m always amazed at the variety of colors, sizes, and songs of warblers in Utah. It seems impossible that all these little vocalists are related!
Whether you’re a casual observer in your local woods or an avid birder expanding your life list, warblers are a welcome sight (and sound!) on a hike.
14 Warblers in Utah:
- The range maps below were generously shared with permission from Birds of the World, published by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. I use their site OFTEN to learn new information about birds!
#1. Yellow-Rumped Warbler
- Setophaga coronata
- Adults are 4.7 to 5.5 inches long and weigh 12 to 13 grams.
- Gray, with white wing bars and black on the chest. Patches on the rump and under the wings are yellow.
Yellow-Rumped Warblers are named for the bright yellow patch above their tails.
There are two subspecies of this warbler in Utah. They are closely related but can be distinguished by their throat patch, which is yellow in Audubon’s Warblers and white in Myrtle Warblers.
They are an active species known for catching insects in midair. During winter, they visit feeders with sunflower seeds, raisins, suet, and peanut butter. They also eat winter berries.
Yellow-Rumped Warblers are the most versatile foragers of all warblers in Utah.
They often search for food in trees but will venture to the ground to forage in leaf debris, and they’ve been known to pick through seaweed in coastal areas!
Listen for the Yellow-Rumped Warbler’s loud, clear song, which sounds like “tsee-tsee-TSEE-TSEE-tsee.” It starts soft at the beginning, gets louder in the middle, and then ends quietly.
#2. Wilson’s Warbler
- Cardellina pusilla
- Adults are 3.9 to 4.7 inches long and weigh 5 to 10 grams.
- Greenish and yellow coloring across the body, with gray-brown wings. Males have a black cap.
The males of this species also have a unique feature that makes them easy to spot. Their black cap is small and round, resembling a toupee! Females may have dark spots or a greenish wash on their heads, but only the males have the black cap.
Unlike other warblers in Utah, Wilson’s Warblers are more comfortable on the ground or in the forest understory. This makes them easier to spot without craning your neck! They often nest on the ground, concealed in shrubs at forest edges.
Wilson’s Warblers make a high-pitched “tchee-tchee-tchee-tchee” noise when singing. It’s quick and repeated often.
#3. American Yellow Warbler
- Setophaga petechia
- Adults are 3.9 to 7.1 inches long and weigh 7 to 25 grams.
- Lemon-yellow across the whole body, with light chestnut streaks on the chest. Males are somewhat brighter than females.
Listen for this species in moist forests of small trees. Its particular favorite nesting habitat is willow groves.
American Yellow Warblers are frequent victims of brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds, who lay their eggs inside the nest of these warblers! But they have a unique way of combating this. They’re known to build a new nest directly on top of their old one, smothering their eggs in addition to the cowbirds’ eggs. As a result, researchers have found nests up to six layers deep!
With its bright yellow coloring and relatively large population, this is one warbler you shouldn’t have trouble finding. The song of the American Yellow Warbler is said to sound like “sweet, sweet, sweet; I’m so sweet!”
#4. American Redstart
- Setophaga ruticilla
- Adults are 4.3 to 5.5 inches long and weigh an average of 8.6 grams.
- Males are black with bright red-orange patches on the tail, wings, and sides. The belly is white.
- Females are charcoal gray with a white belly and light yellow patches instead of red-orange.
The American Redstarts’ abundance and bright coloring make them one of the more easily spotted warblers in Utah!
This beautiful species is high-energy and constantly moving. American Redstarts use their bright coloring to hunt insects, flashing their tail feathers to startle them into flight. Once the insect takes off, the bird snatches it right out of the air! That’s one stylish way to “catch” a meal! 🙂
The American Redstart song is often compared to a sneeze, with a few short notes at the beginning and an abrupt, loud end: “ah-ah-ah-CHEW!”
#5. Orange-Crowned Warbler
- Leiothlypis celata
- Adults are 4.8 to 5.3 inches tall and weigh an average of 9 grams.
- Their coloring is mottled yellow-green and gray, with gray wing bars.
Unless you’re fortunate and highly observant, you may never see the orange patch that gives the Orange-Crowned Warbler its name! It’s only visible when the “crest” feathers are raised, so catching a glimpse of this tiny bit of color is nearly impossible.
Its high, trilling song lasts about one second and is repeated often. It dips in pitch slightly at the end.
#6. Nashville Warbler
- Leiothlypis ruficapilla
- Adults are 4.3-5.1 inches long and weigh up to 13.9 grams.
- Their coloring is yellow below with gray upperparts and a white patch near the legs.
Nashville Warblers have two completely separate breeding areas that don’t overlap! The western population was once considered a distinct species, called the Calaveras Warbler, and generally has a brighter yellow color with a larger white patch.
Nashville Warblers are one of the longest-lived warblers in Utah. The oldest known individual was aged ten years and two months!
One way to identify the Nashville Warbler is to think of a beverage often enjoyed in Nashville; its song sounds like “sipa sipa sipa sipa tea-tea-tea-tea!” 🙂
#7. Common Yellowthroat
- Geothlypis trichas
- Adults are 4.3 to 5.1 inches long and weigh an average of 8.5 grams.
- Males and females have distinctly different coloring; although both sexes are yellow and gray, males have a black mask on the eyes that sets them apart.
One look at a male Common Yellowthroat will tell you why this species is also called the Yellow Bandit! The males’ distinctive black eye markings set it apart from other warblers in Utah.
Like most warblers, Common Yellowthroats migrate at night during the fall. Nighttime migration helps warblers avoid predators and poor weather conditions like excessive heat and wind.
An advantage for bird enthusiasts is that these species are much easier to spot during migration while resting during the day! With a bit of patience, you might also catch a flock in migration at night, visible against a full moon.
Common Yellowthroats have a distinctive song that’s easy to recognize. Listen for “witchety-witchety-witchety” repeated up to 300 times an hour!
#8. Northern Waterthrush
- Parkesia noveboracensis
- Adults are 4 to 5.9 inches tall and have a wingspan up to 9.5 inches.
- The body shape is small and round with a flat head.
- Their coloring is brown above with a cream belly and black streaks. A streak above the eye is usually cream but sometimes white.
Look for Northern Waterthrush near calm water like ponds, small lakes, or deep swamps. They’re almost always found near water, even while they’re migrating.
The Northern Waterthrush eats insects and snails from the ground and nests close to the ground in tree trunks or root tangles.
This species has the fascinating habit of “commuting” from its roosting site to a foraging area during winter! They travel up to 1.2 miles to feed and then return to their nest at the end of the day.
Listen for their call, a loud, short “spwik” noise, or their song, which is a series of chirps that fall in pitch at the end.
#9. MacGillivray’s Warbler
- Geothlypis tolmiei
- Adults are 3.9 to 5.9 inches long and weigh an average of 14.5 grams.
- Coloring is yellow to olive green on the body, with a blue-gray hood.
- Males are brighter in color, with a black patch on the eye. Females lack the black patch and have a lighter gray hood.
They move in sudden, bursting hops along the forest floor. MacGillivray’s Warblers definitely aren’t the most agile birds you’ll see!
They’re quite easy to spot during migration, resting in dense thickets during the day. Their cheerful call and bright patterned coloring make them a welcome sight on a hike.
The MacGillivray’s Warbler song is trilling and high, with an inflection near the middle: “jeet jeet JEET jeet jeet.”
#10. Townsend’s Warbler
- Setophaga townsendi
- Adults are 4.5 to 5 inches long and weigh an average of 8.8 grams.
- Black, white, and yellow coloring on both males and females. Their cheek patch is black in males, and dark olive in females.
Look for this species in mature conifer woods with brushy undergrowth. During the fall migration and over winter, you may attract Townsend’s Warblers to your feeders when the temperature is below freezing. Offer high-energy foods like suet, peanut butter, and mealworms.
Listen for their buzzy, trilling song, which has been said to have a dreamy, sweet quality.
#11. Black-Throated Gray Warbler
- Setophaga nigrescens
- Adults are up to 5.1 inches long and weigh an average of 8.5 grams.
- They are gray with black streaks and a white underside. They have a single yellow dot in the corner of the eye.
Though they aren’t as well-studied as other warblers in Utah, they can be recognized by their yellow eye dot and black and white streaky coloring. Females are smaller, plumper, and have larger heads than males.
Even though Black-throated Gray Warblers are approachable and easy to observe, almost nothing aside from their appearance is known about them.
If you don’t live in its range but think you’ve spotted one of these distinctive birds, you’re probably right! Black-Throated Gray Warblers live west of the Rocky Mountains, but a few get blown off course every year and end up in the eastern US!
Listen for Black-Throated Gray Warblers singing their “zeedle zeedle zeedle zeet-chee” song.
#12. Virginia’s Warbler
- Leiothlypis virginiae
- Adults are 4 to 4.5 inches long.
- Their coloring is dusty gray with a white eye-ring.
Look for a quick hopping motion to identify Virginia’s Warblers in Utah.
They also frequently bob their tails up and down white foraging.
Their gray coloring and white undersides are marked with a bright yellow patch on the chest and under the tail. Virginia’s Warblers are often mistaken for Colima Warblers, which are rarer and harder to spot. The yellow patches on this species set it apart from the Colima Warbler, and it’s much more abundant within its range.
Their song is a clear “swee-swee-swee” that becomes slightly slurred near the end.
#13. Grace’s Warbler
- Setophaga graciae
- Adults are up to 4.7 inches long and weigh 7 to 9 grams.
- Their coloring is gray with white underneath and yellow on the face and chest.
Grace’s Warblers are habitat specialists of pine woods. They’re found almost exclusively in pine forests, even during migration.
They have one of the smallest ranges of any warbler in Utah. Grace’s Warblers breed in the southwest part of the country in mountain areas. Although it’s easy to find Grace’s Warblers, it’s not as easy to get a close look. They have a restless nature and are constantly moving through branches searching for their next meal.
They also prefer the highest branches of tall pine trees. To avoid “warbler-neck,” many bird watchers will lie on the ground and look up to catch a glimpse!
Grace’s Warblers sing a long, high-pitched song that rises in pitch at the end: “tsee-tsee-tsee-tsee-tee-teedle-tee!”
#14. Lucy’s Warbler
- Leiothlypis luciae
- Adults are 3.5 to 4.7 inches long and weigh up to 8 grams.
- Their coloring is pale gray with a whitish belly, a white eye-ring, and a reddish wash at the base of the tail.
Lucy’s Warblers are the smallest warblers in Utah!
Their diminutive size and pale coloring make them hard to identify in the wild. Look for the rusty red patch at the base of their tails, which is the marking used by ornithologists to identify this species in the field.
Though their natural habitat is mesquite bosques and forested washes in desert climates, they have been known to frequent backyards during mating season. Lucy’s Warblers are one of only two warbler species that will use nest boxes. If you’re looking to attract this species to your backyard, consider a box with two exits and a triangular shape.
Their musical, trilling song would be a welcome addition to any bird lover’s backyard soundtrack! It’s a series of short, sweet notes sounding like “eh-eh-eh-eh-eh.”
Do you need help identifying or attracting warblers in Utah?
Here are a few resources that can help!
How many of these warblers have you seen before in Utah?
Leave a comment below!