22 COMMON Hummingbirds in Central America! (2024)

What types of hummingbirds can you find in Central America?

Hummingbirds have captivated people’s interest and attention for a long time. But because they’re incredibly fast and small, these birds can be hard to distinguish from each other. Most of the time, they just look like green, iridescent blurs streaking by your face!

Today, you will learn about 22 COMMON hummingbirds found in Central America.

There are DOZENS of different hummingbird species found here. For the sake of time, I did my best to narrow the list to the species that are most often seen and observed! Each description includes pictures, range maps, fun facts, AND ideas of how to attract them.

#1. Broad-billed Hummingbird

  • Cynanthus latirostris

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.1 to 3.9 inches long and have a wingspan of about 5.1 inches.
  • Males are a rich green with a shimmering blue throat and a red bill tipped in black.
  • Females are golden-green above and gray below, with a white line behind the eye.
  • They have a long straight bill and tail.

Look for Broad-billed Hummingbirds in Central America along streams where they prefer to nest.

.Broad-billed Hummingbirds feed on nectar from flowers that bloom en masse after monsoon rains. They’re most active in the morning and late afternoon when flowers produce the most nectar. Consequently, this is the best time to catch a glimpse of these beautiful birds!

This species uses a fascinating foraging technique called “traplining.” To complete a feeding, the hummingbird takes the same route from flower to flower, eating a small amount from each one, then returning up the line. Their route forms a “trapline” similar to a long-line fishing boat.

In addition to wildflowers, they are also readily attracted to nectar feeders. So, if you have trouble finding Broad-billed Hummingbirds in their natural habitat, you can try bringing them to you!

#2. Berylline Hummingbird

  • Saucerottia beryllina

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.1 to 3.9 inches long.
  • Their coloring is primarily metallic green with a rusty lower belly, wing patch, and tail which often has purple and bronze highlights.

Berylline Hummingbirds occupy mountain forests and canyons in Central America.

You’ll most likely see them at elevations between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. In their winter range, they usually inhabit foothills and lower mountain slopes. 

Although this hummingbird is easy to spot, it’s rare to see more than one at a time. Individuals are solitary and tend to be aggressive towards other hummingbirds, even those of their own species. It’s common for Berylline Hummingbirds to defend patches of flowers or their favorite perching spots.

These small but powerful hummingbirds feed on nectar, spiders, and insects. They often hover while eating from flowers, grab insects from mid-air, or pluck them from spider webs. They’re quite athletic when it comes to dinnertime!

#3. Violet-crowned Hummingbird

  • Leucolia violiceps

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults measure about 4.3 inches in length and have a wingspan of about 5.9 inches.
  • Their coloration is bronzy green above and white below, with an iridescent purple-blue crown and white spots behind the eyes.
  • The bill is bright reddish orange with a black tip.

Violet-crowned Hummingbirds in Central America nest and breed along canyons and streams.

In the winter, look for them in orchards, wooded parks, and cities.

Interestingly, their feeding behavior often depends on the other species in the area. For example, when Violet-crowned Hummingbirds are the largest species in an area, they defend patches of flowers aggressively. However, if there are larger species in the area, they resort to traplining, where they quickly move from flower to flower, feeding briefly on each one.

In their winter range, they sometimes form large feeding groups that may number into the hundreds at flowering trees.

#4. Ruby-throated Hummingbird

  • Archilochus colubris

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 2.8 to 3.5 inches in length and have a wingspan of 3.1 to 4.3 inches.
  • Their coloring is bright emerald green on the back and crown with white-gray underparts and a black bill.
  • Males have an iridescent red throat.

Look for Ruby-throated Hummingbirds in Central America only during the winter.

If you live in the eastern half of the United States and Canada, you may recognize this species as they migrate north during the breeding season. You may notice they are particularly aggressive in defending feeders and flower patches. They chase other hummingbirds, get into dogfights, and occasionally jab other hummingbirds with their bill!

These feisty little birds are incredibly agile in flight. However, their short legs prevent them from walking or hopping. They usually just perch for a short rest and then get back into the air.

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds have a particular affinity for red or orange tubular flowers, which are great to plant if you want to attract them. Hummingbird feeders are also a great idea, as they will visit them regularly once they discover them.

#5. Cinnamon Hummingbird

  • Amazilia rutila

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 3.7 to 4.5 inches long.
  • Their coloring is metallic bronze-green above and cinnamon below, slightly paler on the chin and upper throat.
  • They have a bright red bill tipped in black, a chestnut tail, and dark brown wings.

Cinnamon Hummingbirds DO NOT migrate! Instead, they are a year-round resident in Central America. If you’re lucky enough to live in its range, look for a medium-sized hummingbird in bronze, tan, and green shades. 

Try planting tube-shaped red flowers, including encliandra fuchsias, peacock flowers, and cypress vine, to attract this species. Unfortunately, they are territorial and will defend preferred feeding sites from other hummingbirds, bees, and butterflies.

Except for breeding, Cinnamon Hummingbirds are solitary. Males will perform courtship displays, flying in a U-shape in front of females to try to convince them they are the best suitor.

#6. White-eared Hummingbird

  • Basilinna leucotis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.5 to 3.9 inches long.
  • They are iridescent green on their upper parts and breast, with a black mask, bold and thick white ear stripes, and a red base to their bill.
  • Males have a head and throat that often appear black but flash violet and green in the right light.
  • Females have a pale throat and breast with green spots.

The White-eared Hummingbird is a year-round resident in Central America.

It’s mostly spotted at forest edges and clearings of coniferous forests in the mountains. It’s also seen in pine-oak forests at middle elevations.

Where this species is common, males gather in loose groups of hundreds of birds! They perch in trees and sing short songs to attract females. When a female visits, a male will follow her to her nesting territory and perform display flights.

This sneaky hummingbird uses its small size to its advantage in feeding. Usually, the White-eared Hummingbird will fight other species close to its size for feeding areas. However, if a much larger species is in a prime spot, it performs a low-flying, secretive approach to get past them and access their flowers!

#7. Rivoli’s Hummingbird

  • Eugenes fulgens

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.3 to 5.5 inches long with a wingspan of about 7.1 inches.
  • Males are nearly black below and green above with a dark tail, and in the light have a purple crown and violet throat.
  • Females are gray below and green above, with limited pale tips in their tail corners.
  • Both sexes have small white marks behind the eyes, a long, almost straight bill, long wings, and a tail with a shallow fork.

These beautiful birds have the fastest recorded heart rate of any hummingbird in Central America.

Believe it or not but it ranges from 420 to 1,200 beats per minute!

Most Rivoli’s Hummingbirds use a foraging strategy known as traplining, moving quickly from flower to flower in a predictable order. In some cases, they defend a patch of flowers from smaller hummingbirds. However, studies indicate that they often coexist peacefully with other species.

In addition to the flowers they frequent, Rivoli’s Hummingbirds consume “honeydew,” the sugary water that scale insects excrete. That’s one interesting way to supplement your diet! 🙂

#8. Azure-crowned Hummingbird

  • Saucerottia cyanocephala

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Medium-sized hummingbird.
  • Both sexes have a whitish throat and breast, dusky vest, dusky brown rump and tail, and blue crown and sides of the head.
  • They have some red at the base of the bill and white spots behind the eyes.

Look for Azure-crowned Hummingbirds in pine-oak woodlands near shrubby clearings. They may also inhabit lowland pine savannas, plantations, urban areas, and along the edge of cloud forests.

Like other hummingbirds in Central America, Azure-crowned Hummingbirds feed on nectar and insects. However, they’ve adapted to their pine forest habitat in the way they forage. They often search bark and clusters of pine needles for insects.

Females have also adapted their nesting behavior to use pine needles to construct their nests. In urban areas, they’ve even been known to use human materials like wire in their construction.

#9. Green-throated Mountain-Gem

  • Lampornis viridipallens

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.3 to 4.7 inches long.
  • Males have green upper parts, a white throat with bluish-green spots, and a grayish belly.
  • Females are similar but have emerald green upper parts and an unspotted throat.
  • Both sexes have a straight black bill, a slightly forked tail, and white stripes behind the eyes.

The appropriately named Green-throated Mountain Gem lives at elevations between 3,000 and 8,900 feet above sea level. They inhabit humid evergreen and pine-oak forests.

Like other hummingbirds in Central America, this species prefers tubular flowers. They also occasionally visit feeders, offering a flash of their signature blue and emerald color.

Despite its stable population, the Green-throated Mountain Gem has a restricted range that is heavily impacted by deforestation. This species is not known to tolerate human-altered habitats, so conserving its natural habitat is critical for its survival.

#10. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird

  • Amazilia tzacatl

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.15 to 4.33 inches in length and have a wingspan of about 4.3 inches.
  • Males are golden-green above and on the throat, ashy brown on the belly, and have a coppery tail.
  • Females are similar, except their belly is paler gray or white.
  • They have a nearly straight red bill with a dark tip.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds prefer semi-open areas in humid evergreen forests and banana or coffee plantations. This species’ elevation preference varies wildly with food availability. They may be seen in lowlands, along the shore, or even over 8,000 feet above sea level in the Andes Mountains!

The typical Rufous-tailed Hummingbird in Central America lives three to five years old.

However, even in the wild, some may live for much longer. The oldest recorded wild individual was 12 years old when it was discovered!

#11. White-necked Jacobin

  • Florisuga mellivora

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.3 to 4.7 inches long.
  • Males have a dark blue head and chest, a white belly, and a white tail with black tips.
  • Females have green upperparts, a belly, and a mostly green tail.
  • They have a long black bill.

Looking at a White-necked Jacobin might leave you confused about their name! This is because most of their head and neck is a deep cobalt color with no white at all! However, they have a small patch of white feathers on the back of their neck, which is where the name comes from. 

White-necked Jacobins inhabit humid, tropical, lowland forests and semi-open areas, including forest edges, coffee farms, and cacao plantations.

These hummingbirds show a preference for red, tubular flowers. Several individuals may feed at one tree but are often aggressive toward each other. They also feed on small insects and spiders, often catching them in mid-air while hovering or darting off a perch.

#12. White-bellied Emerald

  • Chlorestes candida

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.1 to 4.3 inches long.
  • Both sexes have green to bronze upperparts, white underparts, and a drab greenish tail.
  • The base of their bill is reddish, and the tip is dark.

White-bellied Emeralds are often submissive to other hummingbirds in Central America.

They tend to feed low to the ground and don’t draw attention to themselves. However, if the conditions are right, they will visit your feeders.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds often bully White-bellied Emeralds away from food sources. But their dominance in the pecking order doesn’t stop there. Interestingly, a female White-bellied Emerald has even been observed feeding a juvenile Rufous-tailed Hummingbird!

#13. Long-billed Hermit

  • Phaethornis longirostris

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 5.1 to 6.3 inches in length.
  • Their coloring is brown and gray overall, with slightly lighter bellies and more brown on the back.
  • They have a long, arched bill, long central tail feathers, and a dark face mask with pale stripes above and below the eyes.

Look for this unique hummingbird in Central America in humid tropical lowlands.

This species hovers to feed, holding their tail streamers nearly vertical and then taking off with a sharp, explosive call. Long-billed Hermits have one of the most distinctive voices of all the hummingbird species, so this can be an easy way to recognize one if it visits.

Long-billed Hermits also have a distinctive mating style. The males gather in large groups, called “leks,” hoping to catch the attention of breeding females that fly by. Females choose a mate based on the best singing!

In addition, females look at the length of the males’ bills, which can be used for defense once breeding has started. Finally, male Long-billed Hermits will wiggle their long tail feathers in a dancing motion to attract the attention of a potential mate. 

#14. Green-breasted Mango

  • Anthracothorax prevostii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.3 to 4.7 inches in length.
  • Males are deep green overall with a black throat and chest and a purplish tail.
  • Females have bronze-green upper parts and white underparts. A dark stripe runs from the chin down the belly.
  • Large, bulky hummingbird with a slightly arched black bill.

Green-breasted Mangos are the master home-builders of the hummingbird world. They use clever adaptations to make sure their nesting and roosting sites are well-protected and comfortable. 

For example, female Green-breasted Mangos nest far enough off the ground to avoid predators, usually about seven feet. The nests are protected by tree foliage. She constructs the nest from moss and spider webs that stretch as the young birds grow, keeping them safe until they can fly away.

Interestingly, this species also chooses to nest and roost near an unlikely neighbor – stinging ants! It’s thought that the ants don’t bother the hummingbirds. However, their painful bite is a deterrent for predators.

#15. Violet Sabrewing

  • Campylopterus hemileucurus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are about 5.9 inches long.
  • Males are deep violet and bright blue with dark forest green on their back and wings.
  • Females are dark green above and gray below.
  • Both sexes have violet throats, large, thick, curved, black bills, and flashy white tail corners.

The stunning Violet Sabrewing is the largest hummingbird in Central America.

It’s found in various tropical habitats, including inland forests, tropical grasslands, and coastal slopes.

You’re most likely to see Violet Sabrewings when they feed at dawn and dusk. Although many people picture a hummingbird zipping through the air, this species is known to spend roughly three-quarters of its awake time perched on branches or flowers. You could say it’s the “couch potato” of the hummingbird family! 🙂

Violet Sabrewings consume almost twice their weight in nectar each day. You might think this would make them gain weight with their relative lack of movement. But, a large hummingbird species needs the calories to keep up their strength!

To attract this hummingbird, you can plant brightly colored vines with long, tubular flowers. They prefer plants that allow them to feed on nectar and insects conveniently.

#16. Plain-capped Starthroat

  • Heliomaster constantii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.3 to 5.1 inches long.
  • They have metallic bronze-green upper parts, a white streak behind the eye, and a long, almost straight black bill.
  • Their underparts are brownish-gray with a white belly, sooty chin, and a gorget that shines bright red in the sun.

Plain-capped Starthroats are members of the Mountain Gem group of hummingbirds. These medium-sized hummers are typically found in mountain and foothill regions. This habitat, combined with their metallic feathers, earned them this glamorous name!

Like other hummingbirds, Plain-capped Starthroats feed on nectar and insects. However, they also visit feeders, so if you live in their range, you may see them in your yard.

Little is known about the breeding habits of the Plain-capped Starthroat. This is because females are so good at hiding their nests! They place the tiny structures in dense foliage and camouflage the outside with lichen. So even the most seasoned birder could walk right by one and miss it.

#17. Canivet’s Emerald

  • Cynanthus canivetii

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3 to 3.7 inches long.
  • Males are solid emerald-green with a red bill and long, forked, blue-black tail.
  • Females are bronze-green above and gray below, with a black bill and a shorter tail.

Look for this deep green hummingbird in Central America in gardens, evergreen forest edges, and clearings.

Canivet’s Hummingbirds are year-round residents that never stray far from their home location. So if you can attract them to your yard, you’re almost guaranteed to keep seeing these beautiful birds!

In addition to their emerald coloring, these hummingbirds are sometimes recognized for their dry, scratchy, chattering call. It sounds a bit like a repeated, “tseee tseeree.”

#18. Green-crowned Brilliant

  • Heliodoxa jacula

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.7 to 5.1 inches long.
  • Males are emerald green with a small blue throat patch only visible at some angles.
  • Females are emerald green, with a spotted green breast, and white spots behind their eyes.

Green-crowned Brilliants inhabit mature secondary forests and residential gardens. They’re a relatively calm species and easy to attract to your yard!

Males generally feed in the middle and upper forest story, so it can be hard to see them. However, females also feed from small understory plants, garden flowers, and even hummingbird feeders. Their primary source of nectar is a vining plant called Marcgravia. This beautiful vine has colorful leaves that add a charming pop to gardens.

Interestingly, unlike most hummingbirds in Central America, they cling to flowers to feed instead of hovering.

#19. Purple-throated Mountaingem

  • Lampornis calolaemus

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 3.9 to 4.5 inches in length.
  • Males have bronze-green upper parts, a bluish-green forehead and crown, metallic violet or purple gorget (throat), and a dull blue-black tail.
  • Females are green above with a black face and tawny underparts.
  • Both sexes have a black bill and a white streak behind the eye.

As their name suggests, Purple-throated Mountaingems occupy humid montane evergreen or cloud forests. Cloud forests are high-elevation forests where there is consistent cloud cover, creating an ethereal, foggy landscape. Hummingbirds in Central America are particularly fond of this habitat! 

Purple-throated Mountaingems primarily feed on nectar from flowers but will also consume insects. Although they feed on many types of flowering plants, they’re the primary pollinator of a few species, including Palicourea elata, which is commonly called girlfriend’s kiss.

The males and females of this species also differ in feeding strategies. Males will defend patches of flowers from other hummingbird species, other males, and females after courtship. Females typically feed from flowers using a traplining strategy, moving through patches of flowers in a repeatable sequence. When catching insects, males often use a ” hawking strategy,” catching insects mid-air, while females prefer picking them off the foliage.

#20. Crowned Woodnymph

  • Thalurania colombica

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Males are about 4 inches long, violet on the head and belly, and shiny green overall. In addition, they have a forked blue-black tail.
  • Females are about 3.3 to 3.5 inches long, bright green above and duller green below, with a rounded tail.

Despite being smaller, female Crowned Woodnymphs are unquestionably tougher than their male counterparts! They’re more aggressive in defending feeding territories, leading to higher quality feeding areas that produce more nectar. They also defend their territories from intruders of other species.

And this tenacity doesn’t stop with defending their food supply. The female also hatches and cares for her offspring completely alone. She feeds her hatchlings by mouth for about twenty days before teaching them to fly and gather nectar on their own. The females of this species are truly incredible!

If you want to see Crowned Woodnymphs in Central America, try planting Heliconias.

They also like bromeliads and epiphytes and sometimes visit feeders at edges and clearings. Like other hummingbirds, both sexes also consume small insects and spiders.

#21. Rufous-crested Coquette

  • Lophornis delattrei

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults are 2.5 to 2.8 inches long with a wingspan of 1.6 to 1.8 inches.
  • Males have a spiky orange crest and a greenish body.
  • Females have a reddish forehead and throat and green upper parts.
  • Both sexes have a white band across the rump.

You may have seen one of these tiny hummingbirds in Central America and not even know!

Rufous-crested Coquettes frequently pump their tails in flight, giving them an insect-like appearance. As a result, many people mistake them for sphinx moths. But if a male stops and you get a good look, it’s hard to mistake it for any other species due to it’s orange head crest.

The best way to find one of these stunning birds is to look for it in its preferred foraging area. Rufous-crested Coquettes frequent trees and shrubs with small white flowers like those in the myrtle and verbena families. They also take insects and have been observed using a hawking strategy, catching them mid-air.

Rufous-crested Coquettes can be found foraging in forest openings, clearings, and roadsides. Despite deforestation and habitat loss, this species is likely to thrive because of its willingness to eat in the open. Consequently, conservationists are optimistic about their future

#22. Fiery-throated Hummingbird

  • Panterpe insignis

Identifying Characteristics:

  • Adults range from 4.1 to 4.3 inches in length.
  • Their back is metallic green with a rosy orange throat and a violet-blue patch on the breast.
  • They have a blue-black tail, mostly black bill with a pink base, and white spots behind the eyes.

These stunning hummingbirds are a true mountain species in Central America. They’re rarely seen below 4,500 feet and spend most of their time higher, venturing as far as the tree line in many places.

Fiery-throated Hummingbirds in Central America survive at these high altitudes by doing nearly anything for a meal! At flowers that are too deep for their bills, they make holes or use ones made by bumblebees or flower piercers, drinking from the base of the flower instead. They also frequently visit nectar feeders. Additionally, they feed on insects by gleaning them from foliage or catching them in mid-air.

They’re aggressive and dominant over most other hummingbird species when defending their feeding territories. Males will defend territories during the breeding season but allow females to feed. Then, after breeding, both sexes defend territories from other species and each other.

Do you want to learn more about hummingbirds?

If so, here are a few books you should consider purchasing. 🙂

Which of these hummingbirds in Central America have you seen?

Let us know in the comments!

The range maps below were generously shared with permission from The Birds of The World, published by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. I use their site OFTEN to learn new information about birds!

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